The Island Committee Finland Land of Islands and Waters TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 1 13.1.2016 11:59:56

ANTERO AALTONEN • FRONT COVER PHOTO: ANNE SAARINEN / VASTAVALO The Sulkava Rowing Race is the largest rowing event in the world. The route around Partalansaari Island extends over 60 km. The church boat race for teams is particularly popular, but there are always plenty of entries for the singles and doubles races too. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 2 13.1.2016 12:00:02

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 3 Dear Reader This brochure describes life, sources of livelihood and nature on islands connections and in island-like areas in Finland. Finland is the country richest in waters and more of the richest in islands in Europe. We boast 76,000 islands with an area of 0.5 hectares or more, 56,000 lakes with an area of one hectare or more, 36,800 kilometres of river bed wider than five metres and 336,000 kilometres of shoreline. Every Finnish municipality has waters, and most contain islands. EEMELI PELTONEN / VASTAVALO with no permanent road connections, on islands with permanent road The number of islands with either permanent or part-time inhabitants amounts to around 20,000. Every island, lake and river has its place in the hearts of Finns. This brochure describes these unique riches. Its multitude of islands and waters makes the Finnish landscape fragmented, creating extra costs for the economy, the State and local authorities, but it is also an incomparable resource. Our islands, seas, lakes, rivingly on producing unique experiences. Island municipalities and partisland municipalities boast a large range of sources of livelihood, although structural changes have decreased the number of jobs over the years. Holiday homes (belonging to around 2 million people), boating (700,000 boats), fishing (1.8 million recreational fishers), nature pursuits and tour- SAMPO KIVINIEMI / VASTAVALO ers and shores are excellent regional assets in a world that thrives increas- ism ensure that our islands and waters touch upon the entire nation. Many public authorities operate in the islands and waterways, including the Defence Forces, the Border Guard, the Police, regional rescue departments, the transport authorities (commuter vessels, piloting, shipping lanes, ports, charting, winter navigation assistance, ferries, cable ferries and roads), the environmental authorities, Natural Resources Institute Finland, the fisheries authorities and the National Board of Antiquities. fragmented land area, and maximises the benefits of islands and waters as a regional development asset. The Island Development Act is an important tool in these efforts. Consideration for biodiversity as well as for cultural and landscape factors forms an essential part of the island policy. The Government aims to develop island and water tourism into a Euro- ESA OKSMAN / VASTAVALO Finland’s island policy compensates for some of the drawbacks of the pean attraction, and to turn our holiday home customs into a foundation for rural development. We have excellent conditions for this. Finland offers citizens and foreign visitors a safe environment in which to experience the warmth of summer, the russet colours of autumn, the snow and ice of winter and the brightness of spring on its numerous islands and in Happy reading! The Island Committee Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 3 RISTO PURANEN / VASTAVALO its vast marine and freshwater areas. 13.1.2016 12:00:06

4 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Finland is a land of islands and waters Let’s start by looking at islands. Greece has Norway’s biggest island, Hinnøya, is somewhere approximately 1,400 islands and Denmark around between the two. 500. Although well-known for their islands, these Finland also clearly outstrips certain well- states are dwarfed by the three Nordic ‘conti- known island states in terms of its number of nental’ states of Norway, Sweden and Finland. islands with permanent and part-time inhabit- Sweden has as many as 221,831 islands, Finland ants. Although many islands are linked to the 178,947 islands and Norway 117,116 islands. There mainland by bridges, Finland still has 550 islands is no other area of this size in the world with over with year-round habitation, with no permanent half a million islands! road connections. Greece has just over 200 such Finland has 98,050 freshwater islands and islands and Denmark around 100. More than 80,897 sea islands. Slightly over 100,000 of our 200,000 Finns live on islands with bridge con- islands have an area smaller than 0.5 ha and nections, including nearly 50,000 in the capi- 76,000 islands have an area greater than this. tal, Helsinki. Approximately 19,600 islands have The biggest island in Sweden, Gotland, is almost part-time inhabitants and no permanent road twice the size of Finland’s biggest island, Soisalo. connection. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 4 A former pilot station on the island of Boistö in Ruotsinpyhtää, Loviisa, owned by the family of Juha Nurminen, hit the headlines in the summer of 2014 as negotiations concerning potential solutions to the Ukraine crisis were held there. 13.1.2016 12:00:13

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 5 Finnish islands by region   1. Southwest Finland   2. South Savo   3. Lapland   4. Åland Islands   5. Uusimaa   6. North Savo   7. North Karelia   8. Ostrobothnia   9. Central Finland 10. Pirkanmaa 11. Northern Ostrobothnia 12. Satakunta 13. South Karelia 14. Kainuu 15. Kymenlaakso 16. Päijät-Häme 17. Central Ostrobothnia 18. Häme 19. South Ostrobothnia Total 9,687 8,918 8,594 8,014 5,448 5,229 4,386 4,187 3,971 2,897 2,570 2,493 2,151 1,933 1,618 1,318 623 512 480 1— Over Total 10 km2 10 km2 145 21 101 5 60 3 77 14 43 6 46 1 42 5 51 11 37 2 9 12 1 12 1 29 4 14 1 16 14 1 3 1 1 9,853 9,024 8,657 8,105 5,497 5,276 4,433 4,010 4,010 2,906 2,583 2,506 2,184 1,948 1,634 1,333 626 513 481 75,029 713 76 75,818 Finland is also the country richest in waters HANNU HUTTU / KUVALIITERI 0,5 ha– 1 km2 in Europe. Its freshwater areas cover 33,000 km2, accounting for exactly one tenth of Finland’s surface area. We are just ahead of Canada in this regard, since their freshwater areas cover slightly less than 9% of the country’s surface area. Fin- Based in Pyhtää, the Kaunissaari fishing village was a bustling community in the middle of the last century. At that time, the island was home to more than 200 residents around the year. The island’s electricity supply was established in 1982, and the mains water supply in 1989. The village shop is a hub of activity during the summer months. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 5 ANTERO AALTONEN JUHA NURMINEN land’s area also encompasses 82,000 km2 of sea. The kicksled was invented by residents of the archipelago region. It was developed in Sweden during the 19th century as a means of transport on ice. Over the years it has been used by fishermen, seal hunters, and postal workers. 13.1.2016 12:00:17

6 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Largest maritime islands in Finland Municipality Area (km2) Order Name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Mainland Åland 7 municipalities 685 Kimito Kimitoön, Salo 524 Hailuoto Hailuoto 195 Replot Korsholm 160 Aasla/Otava Naantali 105 Lemland Lemland 92 Eckerö Eckerö 91 Öja Kokkola, Luoto 90 Storlandet Pargas 72 Ålön Pargas 70 Kyrklandet Pargas 64 Kivimaa Kustavi 57 Pyhämaa Uusikaupunki 53 Vessölandet Porvoo 52 Kirjalaön Pargas 49 Oxkungar-Tengmo-Kvimo Vörå 46 Lillandet Pargas 38 Stortervolandet Pargas 37 Luoto Luoto 37 Kaurissalo Kustavi 36 Largest freshwater islands in Finland Order Name 1. Soisalo 2. Kerimäensaari 3. Hurissalo 4. Partalansaari 5. Viljakansaari 6. Manamansalo 7. Äitsaari 8. Moinniemensaari 9. Oravisalo 10. Kirkkosaari 11. Väisälänsaari 12. Virmaila 13. Kuivainen 14. Pyylinsaari 15. Varpasalo 16. Paalasmaa 17. Salosaari 18. Judinsalo 19. Lintusalo 20. Kyläniemi TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 6 Municipality Area (km2) Heinävesi, Kuopio, Leppävirta, Varkaus Enonkoski, Savonlinna Mikkeli, Puumala Puumala, Sulkava Puumala Vaala Ruokolahti Savonlinna Rääkkylä Taipalsaari Hirvensalmi, Mikkeli Padasjoki Savitaipale Heinävesi Rääkkylä Juuka Ruokolahti Luhanka Puumala Taipalsaari 1 638 1 069 174 170 115 76 74 53 49 47 35 35 33 28 27 27 26 25 25 23 60 metres of shore per inhabitant Finland’s shoreline is fragmented and comprises many islands. Its lakes are full of capes, bays and islands; its rivers are winding. All of this means that the shoreline is much longer than you might expect. In total, Finland’s shorelines amount to 336,000 km when river beds wider than five metres are taken into account. This distance is equivalent to almost eight and a half times around the Earth. The type and shape of the shoreline are important factors for both human activities and nature. No detailed classifications have been made of Finland’s entire shoreline, but the seashore has been inventoried. Most of the shore (approx. 43%) consists of moraine, which is most common on the shores and islands of the Gulf of Bothnia. A similar proportion (42%) is composed of rocky shores, which are found particularly in the Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. Silt, clay and soft-soil shores account for 10%, and gravel and sand shores for 5%. Only just over 1% (approx. 550 km) consists of man-made shore; this includes diverse embankments, harbours, bridges and dams. In terms of recreational value, flat, firm shores with an inclination of less than 10 degrees are considered the most valuable. Ideally, such shores should also have unrestricted access, scant aquatic vegetation and medium-depth water. These topquality shores account for just a few per cent of the entire shoreline. Variations in water level also affect usability. Under one tenth of Finland’s shoreline is such that the water level change is less than one metre, measured over a long period of time — all of this is on lakeshores. Around one half of the total shoreline has level changes exceeding two metres, including the entire marine coast. Level changes of more than five metres particularly appear on the Ounasjoki and Tornionjoki (Torne) rivers, and in some regulated lakes. However, most of Finland’s shores are highly appropriate for recreational use and construction, compared for instance to the steep cliffs of Norway and Greece. In France, Britain and Ireland, the tide may change by more than five metres in a single day. Also, tidal flats may be several kilometres in width in those areas. 13.1.2016 12:00:27

7 EERO J. LAAMANEN / VASTAVALO FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS “There can be no more beloved a shore.” This sentiment is echoed in the first verse of the Finnish national anthem. JARI KOSTET The Teno River and its tributary, the Inari­ joki River, span the Finnish and Norwegian border for 294 kilometres. The total country border between Norway and Finland is 442 kilometres long. The border between Finland and Sweden is 555 kilometres long and is mostly formed by rivers. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 7 Composition of shoreline km % Total seashore – mainland coast – islands – lakes on islands – inland islands on islands 46,198 6,299 39,675 96 128 14 Total lakeshore – mainland shore – islands – lakes on islands – inland islands on islands 214,896 171,506 39,443 2,242 1,705 63 76,000 73,600 2,400 23 336,000 100 Total riverbanks * – mainland shore – islands Total shoreline * Includes the riverbanks of rivers with a river bed wider than 5 metres. SEPPO ALATALO / VASTAVALO Hailuoto is the third-largest island in Finland’s sea areas. In recent years, the number of residents has increased and, today, around 1,000 people make their home on the island. In addition, around 2,300 summer cottage owners use the island seasonally. 13.1.2016 12:00:32

8 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Sparkling blue gold “Finland is called the Land of a Thousand Lakes, but that figure is not even close to the truth.” Zacharias Topelius was right in his Book of Our Land (Maammekirja) in 1875. More than a century would pass before the exact number was calculated, and it was 187,888. The smallest ponds included in the count were only 500 m2 in size, however; lakes and ponds exceeding one hectare in size numbered 56,012. Topelius was not always right; in 1838 a Lapp man had told him a story according to which Lake the basis of this, Topelius wrote a poem that flatly states: “It is as deep as it is long.” A native Inaridweller might well have said “Nuuvt kukke lii ko čieŋal-uv.” An echo depth sounding of Inari was completed AARNO ISOMÄKI / VASTAVALO Inari would not let anyone measure its depth. On in 1961–62. The maximum depth found was 95 metres. A verifying measurement two decades low lakes are eutrophic and require attention. later took off another three metres, meaning that Almost 1,000 rehabilitation projects have been Inari comes second to Lake Päijänne in depth. completed in recent decades. The most common methods are removal of aquatic plants, improve- European champions in large and small lakes ment of food chains, and oxygenation. Another The European Union contains 93 lakes with an icant investments in the removal of nutrients from factor in improving water quality has been signif- 2 area exceeding 100 km . Forty-seven of these are urban and industrial wastewaters. Lake Pälkänevesi manages to squeeze into the list of one hundred largest lakes in Finland. There are many islands, each with plenty of secluded natural habitats. Coastal areas have historically been valuable agricultural resources. in Finland, meaning we have more than all the other EU states put together. There are few statistics in which one country is so dominant. Most of Finland’s large lakes were formed during the Ice Age and shaped by the land uplift. Päijänne and some other major lakes were born from cracks in the bedrock formed hundreds of millions of years ago. Lappajärvi and Paasivesi have a heavenly origin, having been caused by meteorites. In its number of ponds, Finland is fairly even with Sweden, both having more than 100,000 EU can only wonder at its northern neighbours’ wealth of waters. More than half of Finland’s ponds are in the municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki. Since the central and eastern parts of the country are known as the Lake District, this might be termed the Pond District. Water quality is good or excellent in over 80% of Finland’s lake area, although many shal- TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 8 AARNO ISOMÄKI / VASTAVALO lakelets of less than one hectare. The rest of the In the village of Töysä, the ice begins to melt on Lake Hakojärvi. Owing to warmer spring times, the date of ice breakup has shifted one or two weeks earlier during the last three decades. 13.1.2016 12:00:38

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS The EU Water Framework Directive came into extending over hundreds of kilometres. These effect in 2000, with the aim of achieving a good are broken up by short rivers or narrow passages ecological status for surface waters by 2015. Col- where the water level can drop by several metres. laboration between authorities and local residents Canals and locks are often built at these points for is closer in Finland than in most other countries. boats. The water systems Vuoksi, Kymijoki and Due to their love of local lakes and the scarcity Kokemäenjoki contain a total of almost 40 locks of public funding, lakeshore residents have been and 30 open canals. inspired to start up lake protection groups and to work together in maintaining their lakes. Diversity of forms Finland’s lakes differ in character from almost all of their European counterparts. It is difficult to determine where one lake ends and the next one begins. The most interesting is Great Saimaa, which can be viewed as either one or up to a hundred lakes. It is one lake in the sense that the water level is almost constant all the way from Lappeenranta to Joensuu and Varkaus, with a few centimetres’ difference in Savonlinna. However, according to the ice, temperature and flow conditions, the many pools of Saimaa could also be considered separate lakes. In 1933, poet-geographer Aaro Hellaakoski proposed the names Satanen or Satajärvi (derived from the word sata, meaning ‘one hundred’) for the lake, but these never caught on. Like Saimaa, many other pools in the Lake District form chains TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 9 9 The most extensive network of boating routes is in the Vuoksi system, reaching as far north as Largest lakes in Finland Lake Region Area (km2) Max. depth (m) Suur-Saimaa South Karelia, 4,380 86 South Savo, North Karelia Päijänne Central Finland, 1,100 95 Päijät-Häme Inari Lapland 1,060 92 Pielinen North Karelia 960 60 Iso-Kalla North Savo 900 90 Oulujärvi Kainuu 890 35 Keitele Central Finland 500 65 Lokka Lapland 417 12 Längelmävesi Pirkanmaa 410 73 Puulavesi South Savo 325 60 Kitkajärvet Lapland, 305 34 Northern Ostrobothnia Juojärvi North Savo 297 67 Höytiäinen North Karelia 293 54 Kemijärvi Lapland 288 40 Pielavesi-Nilakka North Savo 278 27 Näsijärvi Pirkanmaa 265 63 13.1.2016 12:00:39

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS ANTERO AALTONEN 10 The Saimaa steam regatta in Puumala, July 2013. More than 80 steam vessels are registered with the Finnish Steam Yacht Association, and more than a third of these sail on the waters of Lake Saimaa. Nurmes and Iisalmi. This includes nearly 600 kilo­ metres of 4.2-metre deep-water channels, some 1,000 kilometres of 2.4-metre channels and several hundred kilometres of 1.8-metre and 2.1-metre channels. The system discharges into the sea at TIMO VUORIAINEN / VASTAVALO Vyborg, making it, the EU’s largest lake network, important to Eastern Finland’s economy. New connections have also been planned between the Kymijoki water system and the sea, and between the water systems of Kymijoki and Vuoksi. Casting an eye over a map of Finland, one sees the blue colour of the Lake District forming an extensive labyrinth, in which individual lakes The lakes in Southern Finland are frozen over for around five months, whereas in Lapland the lakes are frozen for seven to eight months. The early spring sunshine invites us to enjoy the some icy activities. are difficult to discern. Further north, the eye is drawn to the two large lakes of Inari and Oulujärvi, and then to Western Europe’s largest artificial lakes, Lokka and Porttipahta. The region of Kuusamo also has plenty of blue-tinged areas, and southern Lapland is split by a belt of mediumsized lakes. The most obvious waters in the west are Pyhäjärvi (in Säkylä) and Lappajärvi, and the eye-catcher in the south is Lohjanjärvi. Many of the smaller water systems along the coast con- At least 100,000 Finns practice the hobby of winter swimming. There are roughly the same amount of men as women. The Finnish Winter Swimming Championships have been held annually since 1989. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 10 When the Finnish people were given the chance to select a lake to represent each Finnish region, size was not the main criterion; for instance in Uusimaa, Lake Tuusulanjärvi was probably selected due to its cultural significance ANTERO AALTONEN ANTERO AALTONEN tain no lakes, however. as the home of many artists and writers. 13.1.2016 12:00:47

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 11 Also a land of rivers The Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) completed an inventory of Finland’s flowing waters in 2014. We have a total of 72,500 kilometres of streams and rivers. Slightly over half of this length, 36,800 kilometres, consists of rivers with HYDROLOGICAL ARCHIVE / SYKE a river bed wider than five metres. Most Finnish rivers are broken up by lakes. Thus, the new river network information system contains as many as 24,880 segments of flowing water and 16,659 lake segments. The single longest lake-free river segment measures no more than 41 kilometres and can be found in the river Temmesjoki in North Ostrobothnia. dominated catchment area. Such rivers include The longest Finnish rivers are, however, sev- Kyrönjoki and Lapuanjoki. Large fell area rivers eral hundred kilometres long: Kemijoki measures are only found in the northwestern tip of Lapland. exactly 500 kilometres from the upper reaches of One fifth of Finland’s river segments are excel- Kemihaara to the sea. Other long rivers include lent in terms of water quality. Water quality is Iijoki (306 km) and Oulujoki (107 km). On the good in 45% of all river segments, satisfactory in south face of Halti, a drop of water will travel 550 24%, passable in 10% and poor in slightly over 1%. kilometres along first order streams and four riv- Passable and poor water quality is mainly found ers (Poroeno, Lätäseno, Muonionjoki, Tornionjoki) in coastal rivers. before reaching the Bay of Bothnia. Streams and rivers can be separated based on Fluvial power The first mill rights had been granted to Bishop area, the coniferous forest zone or the fell area. Hemming at the Halistenkoski rapids in the river Large rivers in clay-dominated catchment areas Aurajoki in 1352. Water-driven sawmills had been include Porvoonjoki, Vantaanjoki, Aurajoki and in use since the late 16th century, and the first Loimijoki. Many rivers with upper reaches in the ironworks with a tilt hammer were built in Mus- coniferous forest zone have lower reaches in a clay- tio, on the Karjaanjoki river, in 1616. The Kukkolankoski rapids are the largest and most famous on the Torne, the long river flowing through northern Sweden and Finland. Whitefish have been caught there for at least 800 years. Autumn is the season for lamprey fishing. ANTERO AALTONEN whether they run in a clay-dominated catchment Opened on 25 May 1929, the Imatra hydroelectric power station is the largest in Finland. The Imatrankoski rapids also dried up for the first time to reveal the stony river bed below. Today, the rapids rush down on summer evenings, to the delight of visitors to the area. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 11 13.1.2016 12:00:50

12 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Largest rivers in Finland, by region A rubber dinghy in the rapids of Kuusamo. White­water adventures are offered by dozens of tourism businesses around the country. River Area (km2) Average flow (m3/s) Lapland Kemijoki 50,910 538 Tornionjoki 39,820 378 Paatsjoki 14,570 146 Tenojoki 13,780 165 Northern Ostrobothnia Oulujoki 22,920 254 Iijoki 14,320 173 Siikajoki 4,440 40 Kainuu Kiehimäjoki 8,700 102 Central Ostrobothnia Perhonjoki 2,690 20 South Ostrobothnia Kyrönjoki 4,900 45 Lapuanjoki 4,110 32 North Karelia Pielisjoki 21,770 240 Lieksanjoki 8,260 94 South Karelia Vuoksi 61,560 554 Satakunta, Pirkanmaa Kokemäenjoki 27,100 216 Southwest Finland Paimionjoki 1,090 9 Uusimaa Karjaanjoki 2,010 18 Porvoonjoki 1,260 13 Kymenlaakso Kymijoki 37,230 304 In the mid-nineteenth century, Finland had rapids that passenger traffic has been minimal, around 4,000 water mills and nearly 200 water- but almost all rivers have been used for timber driven sawmills. The father of Finland’s paper floating, log floating in particular. industry, Fredrik Idestam, opened the first pulp Log floating was relatively common in the 18th factory in Alakoski, Tampere in 1865. Tampere also century, but it became increasingly commonplace saw the lighting of Finland’s first light bulb in 1882. in the second half of the 19th century as steam When the first turbines of the Imatra water- sawmills were taken into use. At the beginning power plant were switched on in 1929, people were of the 20th century, log floating employed up to sceptical: “Can Finland ever need such an amount 70,000 men, albeit for no more than 1–3 months of electricity?” Its power output was 56 MW, while of the year. In the 1930s, it remained by far the today’s electricity consumption peaks at nearly cheapest means of transporting timber. Railway 15,000 MW. The output of the Imatra hydropower transport was approximately four times and road plant has more than tripled since being established. transport up to ten times more expensive. Finland’s rapids now only produce around one Several rapids were cleared and flumes con- sixth of the country’s electricity. The majority of structed to facilitate log floating. In total, there Finland’s hydropower is produced in the river were approximately 13,000 kilometres of floating Kemijoki. Its power stations provide nearly 40% channels in Finland. HASSE HÄRKÖNEN ANTERO AALTONEN Region A tar kiln burns in the Seitseminen National Park. Tar has been used for centuries to protect boats and buildings. Tar became Finland’s most important export product for around a century after 1770. Around 30 litres of tar can be obtained from a cubic metre of pine wood. of the hydropower generated in Finland. Tar and wood In addition to providing energy, rivers have served Finnish people in many ways. For centuries, they were used as waterways and transport routes that connected coastal areas to inland locations. Tar was an important product for over two centuries. It was produced inland and up to 200,000 barrels were exported every year after the middle of the 19th century. The last tar boat (known as ‘paltamo’ in Finnish) floated down the river Oulujoki in 1927. Boat traffic was common in rivers such as Kyrönjoki and Lapuanjoki. In recent years, the TIMO NIEMINEN boat traffic on Kyrönjoki has been resuscitated and travellers have been provided with the opportunity to take part on tours presenting the local river landscape. Most Finnish rivers have so many TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 12 13.1.2016 12:00:54

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 13 HASSE HÄRKÖNEN Around 2,000 rapids have been recovered in Finland since the 1970s. Rocks and boulders have been relocated, gravel has been spread in key spawning sites, and barriers to spawning fish have been removed. The Finnish Association of Waterway Recovery (Virtavesien hoitoyhdistys) works hard to maintain the Vääräkoski rapids on the Hunsalanjoki river in Loppi, Southern Finland. Salmon fishing and recreation Salmon was one of the major causes for early settlements along rivers, particularly those running into the Bay of Bothnia. The economic significance of this pink-fleshed migrant was understood early by the Crown, which declared salmon-fishing the RAUNO PELKONEN / VASTAVALO exclusive right of the State. In practice this meant levying a tax on anyone fishing salmon. After the Second World War, conflicts arose between Finland’s electric power industry and the centuries-old privileges enjoyed by Finland’s river fishers. They particularly centred around the Oulujoki and Kemijoki rivers. Today’s salmon fishing is a varying combination of sea, coastal and river fishing. The Torni- Log floating still plays an important role on the waterways of the Vuoksi River Basin. An extension of the lease period of the Saimaa Canal with Russia could also lead to new growth in freight transport on Eastern Finland’s waterways. onjoki river supplies 50–100 tonnes of salmon annually, while on the Teno, the average catch is slightly greater. Fishing tourism is a major source of income for entrepreneurs along these rivers. Projects are underway in many Finnish rivers to restore migrant fish populations: these include the Kymijoki, Vantaa and Aurajoki rivers, as well as the Oulujoki, Kemijoki, Iijoki and Pielisjoki-Koitajoki rivers. Fishing is by no means the only form of riverrelated recreation. The extensive river network is ideal for canoeing. Some routes consist of river IIN KUNTA TIMO NIEMINEN segments alone, but combination routes comprising both rivers and lakes are more common. The difficulty of the routes also varies: some have challenging rapids, whereas others are also suitable for novices. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 13 Loggers’ games have remained popular, especially in the eastern and northern parts of the country. The tradition began on the river Lieksanjoki in the 1930s. Typical events include poling, rolling, the logger’s oath, and riding rapids on a log. 13.1.2016 12:00:57

14 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Born of an island When Finland rose from the sea after the last Ice Age, it started as an island. No one knows precisely where that embryo of Finland was located. It might have been the top of Tiirismaa, the highest point of today’s southern Finland (222 m). Some 12,000 years have since elapsed. In addition to water, the first island may have been fringed by the edge of the continental glacier receding northwest. A millennium after the first glimpse, Finland already consisted of hundreds of TOMI MUUKKONEN islands. The mainland gradually began to emerge at today’s eastern border. Finland was no longer wholly insular. Some 10,200 years ago, the level of the Baltic glacial lake suddenly dropped by almost thirty metres and the Yoldia Sea was created. Many of of Bothnia, 30–60 kilometres at the Bothnian the islands grew, the largest one being in today’s Sea and 20–40 kilometres at the Gulf of Finland. southern Häme. A few centuries later, glimpses of There were not many islands at that time, but tens Åland could be caught amid the waves. of thousands of them were waiting to rise from The last remnants of the continental glacier the depths. With the continuing land uplift, they melted away from what is now Finland around began to emerge over an extensive area. While 9,000 years ago. The Baltic was a lake, with its the movement of the coastline merged former largest island stretching from Jämsä to Suo- islands with the mainland, the largest of Finland’s menselkä – its area was four times that of Zealand, archipelagos – the Archipelago Sea – was gradu- which is now the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ally formed in the southwest. Today it has almost 40,000 islands. These days the number of Finnish sea islands over 100 m2 in area totals 80,897, with further inland by 50–100 kilometres at the Bay their coastline stretching over 39,803 kilometres. Kvarken narrows. Around 300 hectares of new land emerges on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia every year. PERTTI MALINEN / MUNICIPALITY OF KORSHOLM Around 7,500 years ago, the Baltic became a sea again. Compared with today, the coast was Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) grow on many of the cliffs in the Gulf of Finland. Chives also thrive in inland areas and serve as a reminder of the coastline that once was. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 14 13.1.2016 12:01:07

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS The Finnish islands around 9,000 years ago. The Baltic Sea was then the freshwater Ancylus Lake, with its runoff outlet on the western side of today’s Lake Vänern in Sweden. The coastline was 60 metres above the current level in the south, and even over 200 metres in the Bay of Bothnia. Metres above the surface of the Ancylus Lake 1200 m 700 m Rovaniemi 500 m 400 m Ð50 Ð100 Ð150 Ð200 Ð250 m m m m m 300 200 150 100 50 m m m m m 15 Source: Matti Tikkanen, University of Helsinki © National Land Survey of Finland 192/Mar/98 Kemi Oulu Kajaani Kokkola Vaasa Kuopio JARI KOSTET SeinŠjoki Joensuu JyvŠskylŠ The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) thrives in tern and gull colonies of the outer archipelago. Today, the species has all but disappeared from the inner archipelago. A few pairs nest on the larger inland lakes. Pori HŠmeenlinna Turku Some of our freshwater islands are older than Mikkeli Tampere Lappeenranta Lahti HELSINKI their home waters: they were already islands Savonlinna Kotka 0 km 100 km before the lake separated from the sea. Over the millennia, the land uplift has tilted lake basins, resulting in the appearance and disappearance of islands. The creation of new discharge channels has dramatically altered the size and island composition of many major lakes, including Saimaa and Päijänne. Small islands have been destroyed by ice and waves, and when lakes have become overgrown, their islands have naturally also been obliterated. Humans have drained many lakes or lowered their water levels, causing islands to emerge or fuse with the mainland. Today, the number of our freshwater islands is 98,050. Almost 1,000 of them are islands on islands. Such lakes-on-islands number around 2,000. The total island shoreline in freshwater areas stretches over 43,496 kilometres, of which islands in rivers account for approximately 2,400 kilometres. Thus our freshwater areas just beat the marine areas in terms of both the number of islands and the length of shoreline. The same applies to the total area of islands: inland islands cover about 7,200 km2 and sea islands 5,800 km2. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 15 TIMO NIEMINEN PERTTI MALINEN / MUNICIPALITY OF KORSHOLM islands, located in lakes that are themselves on Kelp is in decline on the coastal areas of Finland. Many species rely on kelp as both a source of food and protection. Humans have also made good use of kelp as a food, a medicine, as fertilizer, and as dye. 13.1.2016 12:01:13

16 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Islanders After the last Ice Age, the first humans who set considerably from the Atlantic climatic optimum foot on the soil of what is now Finland found reached some 5,000 years ago. Despite the grow- themselves on an island. We know this for cer- ing significance of agriculture, the sea was an tain, and we also know that the spot where they importance source of food. More saline than today, came ashore is now far inland. What happened to it was rich in cod and other fish. Ringed seals these pioneers? (Pusa hispida), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were hunted, as were many waterfowls that provided down. be the first-ever summer residents on our islands: During the Bronze Age (c. 1000 BC), the Baltic to catch a few seals and wonder at the midnight Sea had become a major connector between those sun. Other pioneers did, however, follow and the living on its islands and shores. Seafaring and trad- first year-round dwellings were probably built some ing were important forms of sustenance. In the 8,000 years ago. The first person born and bred in Iron Age (500 BC – 1000 AD), settlements spread Finland saw the light of day in a humble abode. further out as the islands grew in area due to land uplift. Sheep grazed, even on the smallest islands. Budding agriculture Swedish settlements were gaining ground in A good 4,000 years ago, the southern and south- the Archipelago Sea area in the 12th century. The western coasts of Finland received their first second migration wave from Sweden in the late large wave of immigration. Battle-Axe people who 13th century was connected with the great king- used pointed shaft-hole axes arrived across the dom’s aspirations for expansion to the east. This sea from Estonia. They initiated a revolution in is when the coast and islands of eastern Uusi- livelihoods: agriculture and cattle-raising began maa became settled firmly and extensively by to exist side by side with hunting. The northern a population focusing on cattle farming, fishing Finnic and southern Estonian peoples interacted and cultivation. energetically, which is evidenced today by the similarities between the two languages. Wars and epidemics The Black Death put an end to the flow of settlers from Sweden in the mid-14th century. The ern island of Nagu. The climate had already cooled two centuries that followed did, however, see an The Baltic herring market has been held in Helsinki every year since 1743. Nowadays part of the town of Parainen, Utö is the southernmost inhabited island in Finland. The island is currently home to around fifty permanent residents and has its own school and shop. JUHA LAAKSONEN Evidence of animal husbandry dating back four millennia has been found on the southwest- ANTERO AALTONEN Likely, they found the conditions too harsh and made a hasty retreat. Perhaps they only intended to TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 16 13.1.2016 12:01:19

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 17 increase in island populations, only to be followed by a sudden plunge in the late 1500s. This may have been caused by a decrease in the catches of fish, but there were also wars and epidemics which – particularly in the early 18th century – cast a shadow over archipelago life. The islands of the Gulf of Bothnia emerged from the sea later than our more southern islands, so it is pointless looking for signs of early settlement there. The first permanent settlers may ANTERO AALTONEN 1,000 years ago. Hailuoto was settled in the 12th century. Fishing and seal hunting remained more important means of livelihood in the Gulf of Bothnia than on the southern islands. ANTERO AALTONEN have arrived on the current islands of Kvarken Our freshwater islands have been inhabited for thousands of years: hundreds of Stone Age But the world was changing. The industrial- dwellings have been found, for instance around ising mainland began to attract the islanders, as Lake Saimaa. Elk and wild reindeer from the for- was the case in all rural areas. Land traffic began ests, beavers from the ponds and fish from the to displace water transport and, despite devel- lakes were all important prey. In Lake Saimaa, the oping road connections, islands became periph- ringed seal was a treasured catch. Slash-and-burn eral areas. The population began to fall. People farming probably started around the year 500 AD. migrated, first to America, then to mainland Fin- Barley was the first crop to be farmed; the earli- land or Sweden. th est signs of rye only date back to the 13 century. The Church of Merimasku was built during the 1720s. It is one of the oldest wooden churches in Finland. Merimasku became part of the municipality of Naantali, Western Finland, in early 2009. Migration accelerated after the Second World War. During the war, almost 100,000 people still Rise and fall – and new rise – of the islands lived on islands without a road or ferry connec- Life in almost all of Finland’s island areas grew is only 10,000. The construction of bridges does stronger and more settled during the 19th century. account for a great proportion of this; the islands Mid-century, the population of the Archipelago didn’t disappear but merely continued their exist- Sea began to spread onto the outer islands; almost ence with permanent road connections. tion. In 1970, the figure was 30,000 and today it 300 islands became populated over a few decades. There is another perspective to the population The golden age of peasant seafaring in the trend: more people live on islands today than ever 19th century increased the wealth of many island before, because the number of part-time residents areas, including Åland and Tammio. Ships sailing has seen a significant increase. Improved data the Baltic and Atlantic were built and equipped connections and telecommuting are enabling the on the islands. Gradually, sailing ships were sup- growth of island living, as a result of which our planted by steamers. Finland’s first lighthouse islands are enjoying new growth. Thousands of was built on the island of Utö in 1753, and the sec- new islands have also become populated by part- ond one in Porkkala in 1800. time islanders. The economic boom and population growth continued in the archipelagos until the first decades of the 20 th century. Life was bustling: many islands had their own churches with pastors, schools with teachers, and lots of shops and JUHA LAAKSONEN was exported and agricultural products were imported. Fish and, for example, stone for use at construction sites were transported from the islands to St Petersburg. Stockholm was another major export destination for the southern and southwestern coast. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 17 JYRKI SAHINOJA / VASTAVALO associations. Trade with Estonia flourished, fish Sheep take good care of the landscape on the archipelago. Sheep farming in Finland is showing signs of recovery after many years of hardship. An adult sheep eats between seven and ten kilos of vegetation every day. 13.1.2016 12:01:21

18 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS JARI LAURIKKO / TURUN SANOMAT In Rymättylä, which is nowadays part of the municipality of Naantali, early potatoes have even been planted in midMarch. The majority of Finnish potatoes are produced in the archipelago region of Finland Proper. Traditional and new industries side by side Island life continues to be bustling and diverse in purity and reliability, which can be utilised in mar- Finland. Statistics show that the economic struc- keting local specialities. The growth season is also ture of islands clearly diverges from the national longer in the southwestern archipelago than in average. The share of primary production is the rest of the country. clearly above the national average, whereas the The number of farms has seen a significant number of jobs in secondary production is below decrease in all island areas. In the middle of last the national average. century, almost every house had one or two cows, The service industry employs almost half of our but now farms are a rarity even on big islands. island population, but even this figure is below On some islands, farming is nevertheless still an the national average. The share of private ser- important source of livelihood. In 2014, the island of vices has grown although retail trade concentra- Hailuoto had 33 farms that had applied for EU sub- tion has reduced the number of special stores in sidies, and five of these farms were dairy farms. The municipal centres and the number of village shops island of Salavainen in Velkua, a nationally valua- in island areas. ble landscape area, had two farms with a combined Over the years, the Finnish Government has total of 200 cows producing milk or meat. granted special subsidies to several municipalities Farming is still a major source of livelihood on belonging to the island system. Support provided the islands of Kimitoön and Malax which have to structural change areas, EU programme fund- vast field areas. Part-island municipality Närpes ing and archipelago increments in central govern- produces almost two thirds of the tomatoes and ment transfers to local government have helped one third of the cucumbers produced in Finland. municipalities to create new jobs by facilitating The first early potatoes from Rymättylä, Naantali the investment, product development, marketing are among the most long-awaited summer pro- and employment projects of businesses. Funding duce and a sign that summer has finally arrived. from the EU’s Interreg and Leader programmes The herring often served with new potatoes also and funding for the fishing industry have been came from Rymättylä for two decades. This is no important to island municipalities. EU funding will longer the case as Boyfood’s Rymättylä-based continue in the new programme period 2014–2020. operations were terminated in 2014 after the company had been acquired by Felix Abba. Agriculture Modern farming favours fairly large units that Agriculture and forestry account for some 15% of can only be established on the biggest islands the jobs in island and part-island municipalities, as fields are small and fragmented. Specialised while the corresponding national rate is less than farming is therefore a prime asset. Farming has 5%. Islands enjoy the benefit of a strong image of decreased on the smaller and outer islands, TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 18 13.1.2016 12:01:24

although new forms, including sheep farming, have emerged on a smaller scale. FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Of Finland’s regions, the fishing industry is most important in Varsinais-Suomi. Approxi- Some of Finland’s almost one thousand fur mately 70% of all the Baltic herring caught using farms are located in island municipalities, par- a fyke net comes from the Archipelago Sea. The ticularly in Ostrobothnia. Fur farms are major con- northern part of the Archipelago Sea is one of Fin- sumers of Baltic herring fished for animal feed. land’s most important areas for catching tradi- Common sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) tional commercial fish species. Fish processing, is also grown on the coastal areas of Ostrobothnia fishing and aquaculture employ around 500 peo- and Satakunta. The berries provide various health ple in Varsinais-Suomi. There are approximately benefits. Hailuoto and Manamansalo, large islands 50 fish processing companies in the region. in northern Finland, still produce large amounts of lichen that is mainly exported to Germany. 19 Recreational fishing is an essential part of island culture. In 2012, Finland had 1.8 million recreational fishers, and the value of their Fishing industry annual catch amounted to EUR 50 million. Ser- In 2013, there were 1,012 registered professional vices related to fishing increase the economic fishers in island and part-island municipalities significance of this pastime four- to sixfold. Fish- and 140 of these were freshwater fishers. A total ing is an essential part of Finnishness, and it is of 355 of all the professional fishers received at promoted by our country’s richness in waters least 30% of their income from the fishing indus- and our extensive fishing rights. In terms of its tonnage, the Baltic herring is the most important fish to the Finnish economy. Baltic herring are mostly caught using trawlers in the Sea of Bothnia. try. The majority of these fishers lived in the coastal municipalities of Korsholm (25), Uusikaupunki (21) and Malax (20). Inland, Savonlinna was by far the biggest fishing municipality with 22 professional fishers. There are fish farms in at least half of the municipalities belonging to the island system. Juvenile fish are also produced inland, but the majority of edible fish production takes place in Åland, the Turku Archipelago and other sea areas. Major fish farms for producing edible fish can be found in Kustavi, Taivassalo and Houtskär. Natural Resources Institute Finland (the former Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute) has fish research and aquaculture plants in several locations, such as Enonkoski and Tervo, a pioneer municipality in fish farming. The number of fish farming companies has decreased, but production volumes have increased. Imported Norwegian salmon, increasingly strict environmental requirements and profitability challenges add stress to fish farming. Fish market events organised around the country provide fishers and entrepreneurs with the opportunity to perform small-scale fish processing and direct marketing. Approximately 50 events are organised annually and they attract a total of one million fish- and archipelago-lovers. The largest events on the coast are held in Helsinki, Turku, Rauma, Vaasa and Kotka. Inland, the biggest events Important smaller events include the archipelago market of Pyhtää, the whitefish market of Hailuoto and the vendace market of Vuonislahti in Lieksa. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 19 MARKKU SAIHA take place in Tampere, Lahti, Kuopio and Joensuu. 13.1.2016 12:01:27

ANTERO AALTONEN Marko Nikula carves wooden boats in Littoinen, in the municipality of Lieto, Western Finland. Finland can proudly boast top-level expertise in boat building. The sector has many enterprises, and exports account for more than two thirds of revenue. JUSSI LOPPERI / KYMEN SANOMAT Manufacturing Uudenkaupungin Työvene builds boats and vessels for Finnish and foreign authorities and companies. In 2014, the company completed an oil recovery and commuter vessel for the Kotka–Pyhtää route. The structural change of Finnish manufacturing has tested many Finnish municipalities in the 2000s. This also applies to many island municipalities, such as Kimitoön, Pargas, Raseborg, Kotka and Savonlinna. In Southeast Finland, Kotka has suffered the worst unemployment rate. The reasons for Kotka’s difficult situation include the structural change of the wood processing industry and difficulties in Russian trade. The challenges affecting manufacturing have also had a major impact on the economy of Raseborg, Savonlinna and many other island municipalities. Dalsbruk, the old industrial centre of Kimitoön, has lost many jobs in recent years. In 2012, steel company FNsteel closed down its big rolling mill and in 2014 Abloy almost halved its number of employees at the Björkboda factory. Some of the large buildings previously occupied by the steel mill are now being used by other companies. TULIKIVI Limestone has been quarried in Pargas at least Tulikivi and Nunnanlahden Uuni refine soapstone for the Finnish and global market in part-island municipality Juuka. Juuka is also home to Suomen Kivikeskus, a centre that develops the use of stone and hosts various exhibitions. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 20 since the 17th century. The current mining company, Nordkalk, manufactures limestone-based products for various industries including the construction, fertilising and food industry. The company has had to resort to temporary lay-offs from 13.1.2016 12:01:32

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS time to time, but the 70-hectare open-pit mine for its fish products. Korsholm, Vaala and Sulkava continues to produce limestone. have small independent cheese dairies that pri- Many sawmills were originally established marily produce specialty cheeses. Berries are also on islands to ensure good access to waterways. ANTERO AALTONEN 21 processed in many island municipalities. This enabled the flexible transport of both logs Vineyards popular among tourists can be and sawn timber. Lohikoski in Sulkava and Lam- found in several island locations, including Par- posaari in Lappeenranta are two good examples gas, Vaajasalo in Kuopio, Lohjansaari, and Kalk- of former sawmill locations close to waterways. kinen in Asikkala. Suomenlinna and the island There also used to be a pulp mill and a sawmill of Rosala in Kimitoön have their own breweries. on the island of Halla in Kotka. The island area Pargas-based LM-Instruments is part of the of Ruokolahti is home to Stora Enso’s large Kau- Planmeca Group, a global leader in the production kopää pulp and paper mills. of dental equipment. Bistro-Tuote Oy manufac- Boat manufacturing is naturally one of the tures kitchen and bathroom fittings on the island most traditional industries in island areas. of Rymättylä in Naantali and Tetrimäki manufac- Approximately 5,000 Terhi boats are annually tures Eliel Saarinen’s Art Nouveau furniture on manufactured in Ähtäri and Rymättylä, Naantali. the island of Soisalo in Kuopio. Some subcontractors also work in Savonlinna. Bella-veneet Oy – Bella Boats is the leading man- The Vaala cheesery was granted the Strongest in Finland certificate in 2011. Vaala produces bread cheese in keeping with the traditional method of the Kainuu region. ufacturer of fibreglass motorboats in the Nordic countries. It has production plants in Kuopio and Larsmo. Botnia Marin, a boat company dating back decades, produces Targa boats in ten different sizes in Malax and Nykarleby. Marsund boats are produced on the island of Pellinki in Porvoo. municipalities by the Gulf of Bothnia and Swan yachts are in fact world famous. Puuvenekeskus builds boats in Kotka, and traditional Finnish long rowing boats, known as church boats, and racing PEKKA HOMANEN Boat building is practised in many of the island shells are manufactured in Sulkava. Are the fish biting? Kuusamon Uistin Ltd. is the largest metal spoon bait factory in Finland. Boat maintenance, repair and storage businesses serving boat owners can be found everywhere in island areas, both on the coast and inland. The dry dock of Suomenlinna, managed by a private association called Viaporin telakka ry, repairs and provides winter storage services operates in the historical dock area of Savonlinna and repairs and provides maintenance services for lake vessels and boats. KUUSAMON UISTIN for traditional ships and boats. Laitaatsilta Marina Rapala VMC Corporation, the global market leader in fishing lures, was originally established by fisherman Lauri Rapala in Asikkala, Finland in the 1930s. The company exports its products to 140 countries. Oy Lindeman Ab is located on the island of Replot in Korsholm. The company manufactures synthetic fish nets for the Finnish market and for export, and has been in business for Several small and medium-sized food industry enterprises also operate in island areas. Coastal city Uusikaupunki is a strong centre for fish processing. Inland, Kesälahti in Kitee is also known TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 21 KOISTINEN KANTELE over one hundred years. Koistinen Kantele in Rääkkylä has been manufacturing traditional Finnish instruments, kanteles, for over fifty years. Master kantele maker, Otto Koistinen, crafted his first kantele while on the shore of Pielinen Lake in 1957. 13.1.2016 12:01:34

22 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Services State functions, such as island traffic, public safety, and environmental services, are still important employers in island areas. The same naturally applies to municipal services. However, the number of State jobs, in particular, has decreased significantly in the last couple of decades. This has had the greatest impact on islands with no permanent road connection. The educational institutions of the Finnish Defence Forces are the largest educational instiANTERO AALTONEN tutions located on islands. The Naval Academy During the summer, one can take a boat from Vuosaari island in Helsinki to Kaunissaari island in Sipoo. The island is part of of Greater Helsinki. Finland’s only “boat shop” also travels to the island in the summer months. is located on the island of Suomenlinna and the National Defence University on the island of Santahamina in Helsinki. Military training is provided in various island areas in units and training areas of the Defence Forces and the Border Guard. The College of Fisheries and Environment of the Livia College provides basic and further studies in Pargas. The University of Turku has some functions on the island of Själö (Seili) in Pargas. The buildings and various areas of Suomenlinna are maintained by the Governing Body of Suomenlinna and provide venues for meetings and events in the capital. The Korpoström Archipelago Centre, situated by the sea in Pargas, provides venues for con- THE FINNISH DEFENCE FORCES ferences and research events. The centre also The Finnish navy safeguards the security of Finnish waters, supports other agencies, and participates in international crisis management measures. includes a hotel. Päijännetalo in Asikkala houses the Museum of Finnish Recreational Fishing, offices and venues for exhibitions and meetings. An annual island concert is organised at the Kassu Halonen Art House on the island of Manamansalo in Vaala. Suomenlinna in Helsinki houses six museums and Seurasaari is home to Finland’s largest open-air museum. Helsinki Zoo on the island of Korkeasaari is populated by 150 different species and the island of Harakka houses a nature and art centre. The City of Espoo is currently constructing an impressive archipelago museum on the island of Pentala, the venue of the annual Pentala Archipelago Days. THE GOVERNING BODY OF SUOMENLINNA Locations with an archipelago, fishing or boat Suomenlinna in Helsinki houses six museums. The Ehrensvärd Museum, the War Museum’s Manege, the submarine Vesikko, the Toy Museum, and the Customs Museum are only open during the summer season. The main museum of the fortress is located in the Suomenlinna Centre and is open throughout the year. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 22 museum include Kaunissaari in Pyhtää, Tammio in Hamina, Vartsala in Kustavi, Rönnäs in Pernå, Näsby in Houtskär, Riihisaari in Savonlinna, Kerimäki, Åminne in Malax, Granösund in Korsholm, Kalajoki, Merikarvia, Bosund in Larsmo, Maxmo in Vörå, Kaskinen, Märingsgrund in Närpes and Öja in Kokkola. The extensive Pielinen Museum with an impressive section on log floating can be found in Lieksa. The Maritime Museum of Finland in Kotka and Forum Marinum in Turku are the best-known mar- 13.1.2016 12:01:37

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS itime museums in Finland. Many other museums Island shops, kiosks, cafes and restaurants can also comprehensively present the history of island mainly be found on islands that attract holiday life and the livelihoods related to Finland’s sea home owners and tourists, particularly in sum- areas and bodies of water. In 2014, the National mer. Such islands include Utö, Nötö, Vänö, Iniö Museum of Finland organised an exhibition that and Norrskata in Pargas, Velkuanmaa and Teer- showcased the summer holidays of Emperor Alex- salo in Naantali, Skåldö and Bromarv in Raseborg, ander III of Russia and Finland and his family that Barösund in Ingå, Pellinki and Emäsalo in Por- were spent in the Finnish archipelago in the late voo, Sarvisalo in Loviisa, Kaunissaari in Pyhtää, th 19 century. Part-time island resident Tove Jans- Haapasaari in Kotka, Bergö in Malax, Replot in son was celebrated at special exhibitions held Korsholm, Ihamaniemi in Enonkoski, Lohikoski in at Ateneum, Helsinki and Art Factory, Porvoo Sulkava and Suuri Jänkäsalo in Taipalsaari. in 2014. Tove Jansson’s cottage on the island of Many island schools have been closed, but Klovharun in Pellinki, Porvoo is open to the pub- schools providing education to year-classes 1–6 lic at limited times. Moominworld in Naantali is and even some schools providing education to an internationally significant tourist destination. year-classes 7–9 can still be found on islands. The art centre of Poju Zabludowicz, including In 2014, islands with schools included Hailuoto, a residence and exhibition spaces on the island of Replot, Bergö, Pyhämaa, Reposaari, Velkua, Utö, Sarvisalo in Loviisa, has brought the work of world- Iniö, Houtskär, Korpo, Nagu, Rosala, Särkisalo, leading artists to the Finnish archipelago and given Suomenlinna, Santahamina and Tiutinen. There the area a boost of positive publicity. Zabludowicz is also a school in Lohikoski, the island part of Collection collects and exhibits modern art in Lon- Sulkava that can only be reached by cable ferry. don, New York and Sarvisalo, but the location in Active residents of the Hitis-Rosala islands Sarvisalo is only open to the public one day a year. established a private service home called Sol- Many companies, organisations and municipal- glimten in 2003. The municipality of Kimitoön ities own island premises that are used for host- purchases services from the home that provides ing events and providing recreational facilities for the elderly with the opportunity to continue liv- employees. These premises are usually very pop- ing on their home island. 23 ular and have good occupancy rates. Recreational islands belonging to major cities include Ruissalo, Vepsä and Maisaari in Turku, Viikinsaari in Tampere, Pihlajasaari in Helsinki, Fagerö in Sibbo and Iso Vasikkasaari in Espoo. The impressive stone and wood churches found in island municipalities are open to the public in summer and available for enjoying a peaceful moment. The churches also provide intimate surroundings for getting married. Well-known churches include the wooden Pyhämaa Church of Sacrification from the 17th century, the Västanfjärd and Nötö th churches from the 18  century and the Haapasaari, Jurmo, Kallankari (Kalajoki), Luhanka and Tankar (Kokkola) churches from the 19th century. Inland, one of the most impressive cemeteries in Finland is Mäntysaari, located in Kouvola in the middle of the island of Vuohijärvi. Many parishes organise camps at camping centres located on islands. Assembly halls owned by youth associations, fishing associations, local farmers’ associations, workers’ associations, hunters’ associations and village associations are often found on islands. When properly maintained, they provide venues for various events. Some islands have open air Turned into tourist attractions Site type Name Location Lighthouse Bengtskär Kimitoön Gustafsvärn Hanko Isokari Kustavi Jussarö Raseborg Kylmäpihlaja Rauma Marjaniemi Hailuoto Märket Hammarland Russarö Hanko Sälgrund Kaskinen Säppi Luvia Söderskär Sibbo Tankar Kokkola Ulkokalla Kalajoki Utö Pargas Valassaaret Korsholm Sites formerly owned by the Finnish Mari­ time Administration or the Defence Forces that have been taken or are to be taken into tourism and recreational use. Pilot station Boistö Loviisa Laupunen Kustavi Ouraluoto Merikarvia Rönnskär Malax Sälgrund Kaskinen Coastguard station Fagerholm Pargas Gåshällan Korsholm Mickelsörarna Vörå Valassaaret Korsholm Fortress Isosaari Helsinki Kirkonmaa Kotka Kuuskajaskari Rauma Rankki Kotka Sommarö Korsholm Örö Kimitoön dance pavilions that are still in use. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 23 13.1.2016 12:01:37

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS ANTERO AALTONEN 24 The development of tourism and recreational services is critically important to the future of our islands. A wide range of seafood can be enjoyed by visitors to the Pyhtää island markets. Tourist sites There are around 50 spa centres in Finland. The Kasnäs Archipelago Spa was opened in Kemiönsaari in 2005. Kasnäs offers a variety of leisure activities, including the Blåmusslan (Blue Muscle) Nature Centre. The service industry already employs almost half Finland. Suomenlinna, Seurasaari and Korkeas- of our island population, so the development of aari in Helsinki are three of these islands. tourism and recreational services is a critical Old lighthouses are important tourist destina- issue for the future of our islands. Although the tions in several island municipalities. The Bengt- situation is challenging, islands are attractive skär lighthouse in Kimitoön, close to the open sea, tourist destinations. Entrepreneurial training, attracts 15,000 visitors every year. Abandoned pilot intensified marketing efforts and networking all stations, coastguard stations and fortresses are also play a key role. It would be particularly important popular destinations. Islands previously owned by to extend the tourism season: the islands have a the Defence Forces, such as Vallisaari, Kuninkaan­ lot to offer at any time of the year. saari and Rysäkari in Helsinki, may become impor- Accommodation and catering businesses, a tant tourist attractions in the future. A cemetery is business life serving them and activity services being planned on the island of Lonna in Helsinki. form the backbone of island and water tourism. Suomenlinna and Svartholm in Loviisa are exam- Busy and versatile waterborne traffic has created ples of old military fortresses that attract visitors. business on islands both directly and indirectly. A National parks, recreational areas and con- total of 4–5 million passengers travel on lake boats servation areas attracted around 3.4 million vis- and coasters every year. itors in 2013. According to a survey, on average, Many of the islands mentioned earlier are visitors estimated the value of the perceived among the most popular travel destinations in health and well-being benefits of one visit at 208 euros. The information centres run by Metsähallitus are important to national parks. Camp sites and camping centres are also part of the tourism structures of island municipalities. Spas can be found in approximately one third of the municipalities. The Savonlinna, Naantali and Haikko spas are the best-known, whereas more recent spas include the Kasnäs spa in Kimitoön and the Koli spa in Lieksa. Russians form the biggest tourist group in FinSAARISTOKYLPYLÄ KASNÄS land, and some Finnish tourist resorts, particu- TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 24 larly in the island municipalities of Eastern Finland, have in fact been acquired by Russians. Such resorts include Sirius Sport Resort in Pyhtää, Holiday Center Kukkapää in Sulkava and holiday centre Saariston Lomakeskus in Mossala, Pargas. 13.1.2016 12:01:43

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 25 OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF FINLAND President of the Republic of Finland, Sauli Niinistö, and Mrs Jenni Haukio visiting the Savonlinna Opera Festival in July 2013. HARRI NURMINEN What is island culture? DALSBRUKS DRAGSPELSKLUBB An icebreaker cruise. This too is part of archipelago culture and is of particular interest to foreign visitors. Rising tourism is increasing demand for a genuine island culture. The culture of our islands and waters consists of history, tradition, nature and the environment. Culture is all the things that islanders do and appreciate; it encompasses architecture, food, clothes, language, thoughts, beliefs... Fortunately, it is impossible to precisely define island culture. Many of Finland’s most popular tourist attractions are on islands. Every year, 1.6 million tourists visit Åland. The Fortress of Suomenlinna, one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites, annually attracts up to 800,000 people. The Korkeasaari island housing Helsinki Zoo attracts around half a million visitors and the ‘Moomin islands’ in Naantali almost 300,000 visitors every year. Built on a tiny islet off Savonlinna in the 15th century, Olavinlinna draws some 150,000 visitors a year, half of them during the annual Opera Festival. The Baltic Jazz Festival is a large annual event on the Kimito Islands. The Dalsbruk’s Accordion Club has been a driving force behind the event. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 25 Manamansalo in Lake Oulujärvi is slightly further away from the crowds, but still attracts 60,000 visitors every year. Our islands boast many buildings and structures that cannot be found elsewhere in Finland. These include lighthouses, pilot posts, historical navigation marks and also our underwater heritage. Military history is strongly present on sea islands, as they house many old fortresses and other interesting sites. The first impressions visitors have of an island usually relate to the village community spread around a harbour. One’s eye may be caught by a lighthouse on a rock, an old windmill or the harmonious beauty of rows of red wooden houses. The lifestyle and sparse living of the islands have helped to preserve old settlements more commonly than elsewhere. In freshwater areas the villages are often located toward the island’s interior, so the visitor may not have such a strong sense of human habitation and activity as by the seaside. Our sea and freshwater areas boast plenty of prehistoric remains: stone labyrinths, rock paintings, ancient settlements and harbours. Island culture features extensively in literature, fine arts, drama, music, song and film. Waters have a strong presence in the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala, and composer Jean Sibelius was also inspired by them. The cultural heritage of our freshwater areas and islands is kept alive by timber floating museums, loggers’ games, old canals, fishing ports and fish markets, as well as marinas and old steamboats. By the seaside, the number of volunteers participating in the painstaking task of building and restoring traditional sailing ships is a tell-tale sign of love for the old archipelago culture. The living culture of our islands and waters is upheld by permanent and holiday residents, boaters, professional and recreational fishers, tourists and many others. Despite the strong tradition, it is also important to build a new culture on the basis of the old heritage; this has been achieved in many of the fine cultural events organised on the Finnish islands in the summer months. 13.1.2016 12:01:46

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS PETRI ASIKAINEN / GORILLA 26 According to estimates, almost half a million Finns work in professions suited to working from home or remotely. Efforts have been made in many of the archipelago and island communities to improve the opportunities for remote work in a second home. Almost 70 years of island policy The Island Policy is the oldest systematic regional opment Act, the concept of ‘island’ covers sea policy in Finland. In March 1949, the Government and freshwater islands without permanent road set up a committee to investigate living conditions access, as well as other islands and mainland on the islands and to make development propos- regions with otherwise insular conditions. The als. The main reason for this related to problems Act obliges the State and municipalities to safe- in the fishing industry. Although growth was still guard the development of islands by providing healthy in other rural areas, the population of support in diverse political areas, especially in island areas had taken a downturn. developing sources of livelihood, maintaining The Island Committee was established in its state employment, funding basic services and current form by government decree in 1961. In building transport and other infrastructure. The 1981 it proposed new legislation to promote the islands’ nature and environment must also be pro- development of the islands. In the Island Devel- tected. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 26 The annual archipelago seminar was held in Savonlinna in 2014. The seminar is arranged by the Island Committee in cooperation with the various regional and municipal authorities of the archipelago area. 13.1.2016 12:01:53

In early 2016, Finland had eight island municipalities and 40 part-island municipalities. The related decree expires at the end of 2016. The island municipalities are Enonkoski, Hailuoto, Kimitoön, Kustavi, Malax, Pargas, Puumala and Sulkava. The part-island municipalities are Asikkala, FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 27 areas jointly with municipalities, regions, State authorities and other parties. The work of the Committee is guided by the national action plan for island policy. The action plan for 2012–2015 comprises five priority areas: Municipal and regional policy Businesses and employment Espoo, Helsinki, Hirvensalmi, Ingå, Joutsa, Juuka, Permanent and recreational dwelling Jyväskylä, Kaarina, Kirkkonummi, Kitee, Kivijärvi, Transport and data communication connections Korsholm, Kotka, Kuhmoinen, Kuopio, Larsmo, Environment, nature and culture. Lieksa, Liperi, Loviisa, Luhanka, Mikkeli, Naantali, Närpes, Parikkala, Pori, Porvoo, Pyhtää, Raseborg, The Island Committee submits regular reports, Ruokolahti, Rääkkylä, Salo, Savonlinna, Sibbo, Tai- on the implementation of the action plan, to the palsaari, Taivassalo, Tervo, Uusikaupunki, Vaala ministerial working group on public administra- and Vörå. tion and regional development. Island and partisland munici­ palities. seashore and three are inland, while the part- Successes and regrets island municipalities are distributed rather evenly. The islands policy has produced results. Commuter Before the current wave of municipal mergers, vessels, ferries, cable ferries, hydrocopters, pri- there were 13 island municipalities, but the num- vate roads, public roads and bridges have been put ber fell due to amalgamations, particularly in in place for island traffic. Some businesses have southwestern Finland. The part-island municipal- received higher subsidies from the State and the EU ities contain 18 cities, Helsinki being the largest. than their mainland counterparts. The provision of The old Island Committee’s final report in 1957 municipalities’ statutory basic public services has emphasised the significance of a geographically been facilitated by archipelago increments in cen- widespread policy on coastal and water areas. tral government transfers to local government. This has remained the approach in the Govern- Electrification spread swiftly in the archipel- ment’s islands projects and decisions-in-principle agos in the 1950s and 60s, and phone lines were in the 1990s and beyond. laid around the same time with support from The Island Committee is a permanent statutory the State. Finland’s government is committed to advisory body that operates in connection with bringing today’s fast data communications out the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The Com- to the islands. Many archipelagos have national mittee participates in the development of island parks and conservation areas, which form treas- TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 27 PASI HYVÖNEN Five of the island municipalities are on the 13.1.2016 12:01:54

28 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS ure-troves of the ecosystem and are essential for tourism. Landowners receive appropriate compensation for this. Nationwide island development projects have focused on promoting tourism, fishing, small-scale processing and telecommuting. Island municipalities aim to enhance their image as tourist destinations and permanent residence areas, sometimes with shared marketing campaigns. The number of recreational residences has been increased with research and development projects aiming for more flexible town planning and exceptional permit policies, building and repairing holiday homes, and utilising summer residents’ purchasThe number of State jobs in the archipelagos remained high and even grew between the 1950s and 70s; since then, it has fallen, proving a challenge to the fulfilment of the Island Development Act. Pilot stations have been closed down by the Maritime Administration, coastguard stations by PETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO ing power and competence. the Border Guard, and the coastal artillery and some Navy units by the Defence Forces, mainly due to technological advances. Ferries have been replaced by bridges, reducing the number of TOMI MUUKKONEN transport-related jobs. Since the 1980s, the Tax The Finnish Border Guard is responsible for maritime rescue work. Assistance is given to people in distress at sea, missing people are searched for, and ambulance transport provided. The island rescue points have provided year-round safety for generations of island residents and holiday-makers alike. Administration, the Employment Administration, the Police and local Government agencies have cut their staff in island municipalities. Meanwhile, Post Office operations have been privatised. International context Finland’s accession to the European Union in 1995 had an impact on the country’s island policy. Fishing and agriculture, which are crucial in the archipelagos, and to an extent also regional politics, are now led from Brussels. In regional policies, the number of islands is not a criterion for the EU’s structural fund agenda. In practice, however, island-based regions have often been granted a better status than their socioeconomic figures might have entitled them to. A fairly good level of EU funding has been provided, which is important for the islands. This is in line with the European Charter of Fundamental Social Rights, which recognises the fact that insular regions have special characteristics that must be addressed. JARI KOSTET The island policy is also linked to the EU’s pol- The Sea Bridge road ferry traverses the approximately 8 kilometre stretch between the mainland and Hailuoto. The ferry can carry more than 50 cars. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 28 icies on the use and maintenance of coastal and maritime areas. The Island Committee maintains contact with other European island regions, for instance through the Conference of Peripheral Maritime Regions. 13.1.2016 12:02:00

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 29 PETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO The most enthusiastic holiday home owners in the world? How close to water do Finns live? This, too, has exist until the late 19th century when wealthy city been studied. The average Finn lives 2.7 kilome- dwellers first began building beautiful summer vil- tres from the nearest lake or river. In Pohjois-Savo, las in the countryside. Many villas were built near the distance is only 1.2 kilometres. The inhabit- coastal towns and in Terijoki on the Karelian Isth- ants of Uusimaa and Ostrobothnia have the long- mus. Inland, villas were common in municipalities est distance to fresh water, but even there it is such as Tuusula, Asikkala, Sysmä and Punkaharju. only 4 kilometres. The locations of the first villa communities The seashore is on average 58 kilometres away. were affected by steamboat routes and railway On Åland, the sea is 1.3 kilometres away, whereas lines. Even if the summer house was reached by the inhabitants of Uusimaa are almost 7 kilome- train, the vicinity of water was important since tres away and the inhabitants of Varsinais-Suomi water-related pastimes were an essential part of 9 kilometres away from the seashore. In this the summer life of these wealthy pioneers. aspect, Pohjois-Savo is the statistical loser: the sea is on average 209 kilometres away. During the first two decades of Finland’s independence, having a holiday home became more It seems, however, that Finns cannot live close common and was no longer only for the upper enough to water. At least this is the conclusion class. As many as 15,000 holiday homes were built one could draw from the fact that Finns have over during this time. Luxurious decorating decreased half a million holiday homes and that more than and holiday homes began to resemble the single- four out of five of these secondary residences are family houses of suburban regions. Some large located by water. People annually spend 7.5 billion companies constructed entire holiday villages for euros on holiday home living, and the majority of their employees. Allotment gardens also arrived this spending takes place in island municipali- in Finland in these decades, Germany being the ties or municipalities with water and island areas. main source of inspiration. What are the reasons for this holiday home madness? Are even young Finns in love with the traditional summer cottage? Perhaps the answer can be found under water or even online? Spending time at a holiday home became a national pastime in the 1960s and the number of summer cottages exceeded the 100,000 limit in Some hundred years of holiday home history 1962. Families increasingly often had their own Thousands of years ago, our ancestors used to days became longer and wages also grew slightly. have shelters for hunting and fishing. However, This meant that holiday homes could be located holiday homes for spending leisurely time did not further away from population centres and shore- TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 29 car, the road network improved, summer holi- 13.1.2016 12:02:01

30 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS tages were built on land belonging to a farm the cottage owner had grown up on or a plot bought from relatives for a moderate price. New holiday homes were small and modestly equipped. Only one in ten holiday homes had electricity in the 1960s. Prefabricated holiday homes also came on the market. The growth in the number of holiday homes saw a minor downturn in the 1970s, but then accelerated again. Modifying old buildings and taking them into holiday use was particularly popular in the 1980s. Many small farms and crofts used to house evacuees after the evacuation of Finnish Karelia had been deserted and could be acquired for a moderate price. People were now more willing to buy holiday homes that were further away from water. In the 2000s, stricter building regulations, The vast majority of saunas in Finnish summer cottages are woodburning. In total, there are around 3.2 million saunas in Finland. Traditional smoke saunas are becoming more popular – estimates suggest there are now more than 30,000 smoke saunas in Finland. increase in prices have curbed the construction of new holiday homes. As a new phenomenon, many secondary residences have been built near holiday resorts. This has been a particularly clear trend in the ski resorts of Northern Finland. These holiday homes are better equipped line plots became increasingly popular. Legisla- and larger than the average holiday home in Fin- tion did not significantly limit building on shores land and many of the owners live far away: the and shoreline areas before the year 1969. average distance from holiday home to home is Spending time at holiday homes can be seen approximately 400 kilometres in Ruka, approxi- as a counter reaction to the structural change of mately 600 kilometres in Levi and almost 800 kil- the countryside and the accelerating urbanisation. ometres in Saariselkä. Although people needed to live in towns and cit- During the hundred years that holiday homes ies to make a living, they did not want to forget the have existed in Finland, the name used to describe landscapes of their childhood. Many summer cot- them has changed several times. Wealthy people ANTERO AALTONEN PETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO the scarcity of suitable plots and a significant called their holiday homes villas, but by the 1960s, most people talked about going to their summer cottage or simply to the cottage. Today, the most common terms are ‘secondary residence’, ‘holiday home’ and ‘second home’. Pull factors What is it that attracts people to holiday home living? Every year, Finland provides a stage for approximately two million slightly different hol- PETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO iday home experiences. Researchers have, how- Around 40% and 55% of the adult population in Finland enjoy picking wild mushrooms and berries respectively. Women are more active in these pastimes than men, and older people are keener than youngsters. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 30 ever, tried to determine the essential elements related to life at holiday homes. Based on the most popular locations for summer cottages, one of these elements is water. The shorelines of lakes relatively close to densely built-up areas and approximately one third of Finland’s coastal areas are full of holiday homes. Summer cottages can also be found on almost 20,000 islands with no road connection. 13.1.2016 12:02:08

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 31 ANTERO AALTONEN Many summer cottages have been handed down from one generation to another. Summer cottage exteriors have remained unchanged for decades. 120 000 the local community and many municipalities and village communities encourage this development. 100 000 According to researcher Kati Pitkänen, holi80 000 day home landscapes have amalgamated with our 60 000 conceptions of the Finnish national landscape and 40 000 less Finnishness, an ideal landscape and a past symbols. Thus, these landscapes represent a timegolden age. Holiday homes can be seen to empha- 20 000 sise and deepen Finns’ relationship with nature. 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 The construction of holiday homes in Finland in different decades. Three out of four of today’s holiday homes have been constructed between 1960 and 2000. The figure also includes an estimate for the 2010s. The quirky little habits related to our holiday home lifestyle reflect the characteristics associated with Finnishness. The most beautiful landscape in the world opens from the terrace of a Finn’s lakeside or seaside sauna on a summer evening. Pitkänen says that the idea of this ideal land- As mentioned, holiday resorts have become scape affects how Finns see foreign second home important pull factors in the 2000s. The younger ownership in Finland. Foreigners have been generation, in particular, enjoys having the opportu- allowed to buy properties in Finland without a nity to relax while enjoying their favourite activities. special permit since the year 2000. Foreign own- The resorts also offer visitors a lively social scene. ership is seen as a threat because it challenges Nevertheless, many holiday homes are still the Finnishness of spending time at a holiday located in isolated areas in the countryside, far home. The Finnish media and holiday home own- from houses in year-round use. The centre of the ers have nervously monitored how well foreigners village or municipality is often merely passed on will adopt the unwritten rules of Finnish holiday the way to the holiday home and visited when gro- home life and its landscapes, and Finns have not ceries or services are needed. Increasingly, holiday been very eager to welcome the foreigners’ cul- home owners also want to have an active role in ture and traditions. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 31 HARRI NURMINEN 0 Crayfish are a late summer delicacy for summer cottage visitors. The signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) was introduced to Finland from North America in the 1960s following the spread of crayfish plague, which had devastated the native European population. This giant-clawed newcomer has all but ousted the native river crayfish, aside from in the northern-most rivers of Finland. 13.1.2016 12:02:11

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS ANTERO AALTONEN 32 Holiday home activities In the first villas, organising parties and socialising with the neighbours were an essential part of holiday home life. Many villas had a garden, but freedom from responsibilities and care-free holi- PETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO The temperature of lakes in Southern Finland can remain below 20 degrees Celsius for almost the entire summer. Many summer cottages offer a chance for a dip in a hot tub. daymaking were more important than gardening. After Finland had gained its independence, society became more middle-class and people would go to the sauna, fish, swim and go berry-picking at their more modest cottages. Sunbathing also became more popular as of the 1920s. Previously, Raking fallen leaves is effective and useful exercise. people had avoided becoming tanned. In the 1960s, the number of people spending before: milk was bought from local farmhouses time at summer cottages doubled. The recrea- and sometimes the cottage owners would even tional use of waters and other nature-related pas- participate in hay-making. Having one’s own gar- times continued to interest people, and people den and vegetable patch at the cottage was no were more actively in contact with the locals than longer seen as positively as before. In today’s holiday home life, researchers differentiate between beneficial and recreational activities. Beneficial activities are seen as a creative pastime, but they can also turn the holiday home into an exhaustive project: earth is moved, stone walls built and a new construction project planned for each summer. Recreational activities include traditional nature-related pastimes, such as swimming, rowing, canoeing and going for walks. People want to experience the aesthetic environment surrounding them, even if this requires some effort. Motor Although many holiday homes are now almost as well equipped as primary homes, leading a simple life and cherishing a country lifestyle are still important to many cottage owners. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 32 JORMA JÄMSEN / VASTAVALO sports and various gadgets are also part of holiday life to many people. Since cottage life cherishes traditions, does it also emphasise traditional gender roles? Do men participate in activities outside and women inside the cottage? According to researchers, there is some evidence to support this theory. 13.1.2016 12:02:15

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS The locations of Finnish holiday homes in 2012. The number of holiday homes was first calculated in 250-metre grid squares. Then the density of holiday homes was determined within a distance of 3 kilometres from the centre of each grid square. The coast of Finland, from the Russian border to the bottom of the Bay of Bothnia, is almost continuously lined with holiday homes. There are also many holiday homes in the southern part of the Lake District and in the lake-rich western Uusimaa. In the inland areas of Northern Finland, holiday home density is the greatest near ski resorts. Although the holiday home environment is very familiar to its residents, minor changes always add something new to the experience: unusual weather or coming across a wild animal are enough to create change and provide a topic to be discussed on the first coffee break on Monday morning. Environmental impacts Every holiday home has an impact on local natural conditions, such as water quality, coastal ecol- Summer cottages/ km2 in the year 2012 0.1–1.0 1.0–2.0 2.0–5.0 5.0–10 10 regional boundary 0 50 100 km ogy and landscapes. Some of these impacts are intentional and desirable: people want to dredge shores and add sand, cut down fir trees and move soil. Some of the impacts are a result of wastewater emissions, and the most meticulous research- Finnish Environment Institute, summer cottage data, VTJ/VRK 4/2013, regional boundary: Karttakeskus Ltd., license L4659. ers say that even the smoke from saunas is an environmental problem. All holiday home owners naturally want the local environment to remain as unpolluted as posPETRI JAUHIAINEN / VASTAVALO sible and the legislator has stretched out a helping hand to protect the environment. However, some feel that legislation is too strict. Holiday homes are no longer a major source of discharges into waterways: they account for less than 1% of phosphorus and nitrogen discharges into waters, and the figure will continue to decrease in the future. Travel to and from holiday homes amounts to 7% of all car traffic in Finland. The average holiday home owner annually spends approximately EUR 2,000 on fuel. This amount covers the fuel used in cars, boats, motor-driven equipment and off-road vehicles. Nine out of ten holiday homes have electricity. Some holiday home owners have installed solar panels, but ground source heat pumps (GSHP) and wind power stations are still rare. Insulating holiday homes for winter use has been popular, but heating costs still increase in winter. Holiday home life also benefits the environ- 33 The most enthusiastic holiday home owners in the world? Is spending time at a holiday home such a Finnish phenomenon as we tend to believe? If there were as many holiday homes per person in the world as there are in Finland, the number would be over half a billion. However, the actual number is only around 20 million. We do not have to look far for the countries with the most holiday homes: Sweden has around 650,000 and Norway around 450,000 recreational residences. Norway’s holiday home density is slightly greater than Finland’s – and a world record at that. Denmark’s number of holiday homes, 220,000, seems huge with regard to the area of the country, but in proportion to the population, it is less than half of the number of holiday homes Finns have. Americans have some four million holiday homes. In proportion to the population, this means that Finland has almost six times as many secondary resi- dences as the US. Holiday home density varies significantly from state to state. An international study reveals that life at holiday homes has many similarities in different countries. Having a cabin by a lake is the ideal in Sweden, Canada and many states in the US. In the State of Michigan, for instance, there are 230,000 holiday homes of which 80% are located by a lake. More than half of the holiday homes in Michigan are fit for winter habitation. Winters in Michigan are harsher but significantly shorter than in Finland. A holiday home owner from Michigan spends almost 90 days a year at his or her holiday home and as many as half of all holiday home owners are over the age of 60. They are also rather wealthy: holiday home owners in Michigan use four times as much money on improving and repairing their property than Finnish holiday home owners. ment. The number of forest birds may increase, and birds that build their nests into a hole in a tree like the old trees often found on holiday home plots. Many people also put up nestboxes for birds. Spending time at a holiday home provides a great environmental education for many Finns, with positive effects on attitudes toward environmental protection and a simple, natural development, these recreational residences constitute a key form of urban-rural interaction, promoting the maintenance of a vital and diverse countryside. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 33 Deploying gillnets has even become a motorised pastime for some summer cottage owners – an outboard motor is used in the summer, a snowmobile in the winter. ANTERO AALTONEN lifestyle. From the viewpoint of sustainable social 13.1.2016 12:02:18

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS MARKKU TANO / MAISEMA.FI 34 Koli National Park was established in 1991. The mountain rising more than 250 metres above Pielinen was a popular tourist destination as early as the end of the 19th century. Many consider the view from the top to be the most beautiful landscape scene in Finland. Island and water areas provide employment and recreation Finland does not have a single national park totally lacking in waters or islands. Some national parks have been specifically established to protect islands and waters. The ten parks with the greatest number of islands cover around 3,000 islands and islets and numerous bodies of water. Many conservation, hiking and recreational areas are important infrastructures to municipalities comprising islands and waters. In 2013, it was calculated that these areas and national parks employed a total of 2,300 people. The total income effect of the areas and parks was approximately EUR 180 million and the total number of visitors 3.4 million. ANTERO AALTONEN The Olhavanvuori hill in the Repovesi National Park is the most popular rock climbing site in Finland. The rock face rises almost 50 metres above the surface of the lake below. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 34 Linnansaari National Park, located at Haukivesi in Lake Saimaa, was established in 1956. It is some 40 kilometres long and 10 kilometres wide. There are more than 130 islands with an area exceeding one hectare, as well as hundreds of smaller ones, but the park is still dominated by vast open waters. It is home to more than fifty extremely endangered Saimaa ringed seals (Pusa hispida saimensis), and its osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population is one of the densest in Finland. On the main island of Linnansaari you can learn about traditional landscape management, a restored croft and slash-and-burn farming. There are also many nature trails and 20 moorings for visitors arriving by boat. In winter, visitors can test the park’s 30-kilometre tour skating route. JARI KOSTET Versatile lake habitats The Nuuksio National Park is located only 30 kilometres from the centre of Helsinki. The Park’s wilderness-like atmosphere can be easily enjoyed by anyone visiting the Finnish capital. 13.1.2016 12:02:24

TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 35 35 JUHA TASKINEN Linnansaari National Park annually attracts some 30,000 visitors and its employment impact amounts to 33 person-years. In summer, there is a boat service between the national park and the villages of Oravi and Rantasalmi, located in the island area of Savonlinna. Information on the park is available at Linnansaari Visitor Centre Oskari in Rantasalmi and Saimaa Nature Exhibition and Information Point Nestori in Savonlinna There is also another national park in Lake Saimaa: Kolovesi National Park was established in 1990. Although it only has forty islands, these include two of the largest islands in our national parks: Vaajasalo (1,210 ha) and Mäntysalo (740 ha). The park is characterised by long and narrow fjord-like inlets penetrating deep into the interiors of the main islands. The most majestic of granite rock faces rise almost vertically to heights of up to 40 metres, and plunge equally deep underwater. Commonly found species of fish are vendace (Coregonus albula), smelt (Osmerus eperlanus), perch (Perca fluviatilis), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) and ide (Leuciscus idus). Rarer species include brown trout (Salmo trutta m. lacustris), Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and the spiky and bony fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), a relict of the Ice Age. Kolovesi National Park annually attracts slightly less than 10,000 visitors and its employment impact is 9 person-years. In summer, information on the park is available at the Kolovesi Nature Information Hut in the centre of Enonkoski. In addition to Enonkoski, the park covers areas of Savonlinna and Heinävesi. Established in 1993, Päijänne National Park comprises around fifty undeveloped islands and islets, as well as parts of inhabited islands. The heart of the park is Kelvene, an esker island 8 kilometres long and 50–800 metres wide. Its special features include long sandy beaches and sheltered lagoons. Rocky banks and terraces on the sides of the esker bear witness to ancient water levels. This park annually attracts around 15,000 visitors and its employment impact amounts to 9 personyears. In summer, there is a transport service from the Padasjoki boat harbour and from Vääksy in Asikkala. Information on the park is available at Päijännetalo in Asikkala. The most recent addition to Finland’s lake-rich national parks is the Southern Konnevesi National Park. The park was established in 2014 and it covers 1,500 hectares of shoreline areas and islands. Konnevesi is the clear-watered central lake of the Rautalampi waterway and its shores are steep and rocky. Kalajanvuori Hill, a hill located on the eastern side of the lake, rises 211 metres above sea level. Although the landscape may seem rather rugged, lush groves and forests with small-leaved lime trees can be found in the area. Koli National Park mainly spreads over the island area of Lieksa. The view from Ukko-Koli Hill to Lake Pielinen is one of the most famous national landscapes in Finland. Lake Herajärvi, a biggish lake, is also part of the national park. Visitor Centre Ukko provides information on Koli’s geology and the area’s flora and fauna. Finland’s only inland waterway car ferry operates between Koli and Lieksa every summer. In winter, Finland’s longest public ice road goes over Lake Pielinen. In summer, visitors can work as shepherds in the park. It is also possible to participate in slashing and burning used to preserve the traditional landscape. The park annually attracts around 140,000 visitors and its employment impact amounts to 77 person-years. FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS The Saimaa ringed seal is the emblem of nature conservation in Finland. The Linnansaari and Kolovesi National Parks are the favoured habitats of this exceptionally endangered species. Climate change poses a real threat to the Saimaa ringed seal. If there is poor snow cover, the mother seal is unable to make a nest in snowdrifts. Pups easily perish out on the open ice. JARI KOSTET MARKKU TANO / MAISEMA.FI Metsähallitus – the Finnish forestry commission – is responsible for the maintenance of all kinds of recreational rest stops. One in four Finns hikes at least 10 kilometres a year, and one in ten goes on an overnight hiking trip. Nuuksio National Park is located in the lake-rich area of part-island municipality Espoo, and it has become extremely popular in a short period of time. The park annually attracts around 270,000 visitors and its employment impact is 16 person-years. Nuuksio comprises 80 small lakes and ponds and there are regular buses to the park from the centres of Espoo and Helsinki. Finnish Nature Centre Haltia provides information on Nuuksio and other Finnish national parks. Nuuksio National Park is popular among foreign hikers. 13.1.2016 12:02:27

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS JARI KOSTET 36 The oldest of Finland’s maritime national parks is the Eastern Gulf of Finland National Park, opened in 1982. It covers areas located in the towns of Kotka and Hamina and the municipality of Virolahti. The park’s 20 forested islands and around 200 islets total 800 hectares in area. The largest island is Ulko-Tammio. The park is an important breeding area for seals, and it is also rich in sea birds. Besides natural attractions, the park has military monuments, including a fortress, a torpedo boat station and a WWII military cave. The island villages of Kaunissaari, Haapasaari and Tammio are close by. The park annually attracts some 15,000 visitors and its employment impact amounts to 8 person-years. Information on the park is available at the Kotka Maretarium and at the Haapasaari and Kaunissaari Nature Information Huts. These islands can be reached by commuter vessel around the year. Established in 1989, the Ekenäs Archipelago National Park covers a total of 52,000 hectares of sea, containing almost 500 islands and islets. The largest island, Älgö (700 ha), is also the largest in all of our maritime parks. The park extends from the inner archipelago to the open sea, which means that the flora and fauna vary considerably. Several glo-lakes that have separated from the sea, and fladas that are still undergoing separation provide valuable nesting and resting grounds for birds. The park annually attracts some 50,000 visitors and its employment impact amounts to 39 personyears. The most famous attractions include the Rödjan House and Nature Information Hut and the Jussarö fortress island. Visitors can seek information from the Ekenäs Visitor Centre built in an old salt storehouse. The Archipelago Sea National Park is located in the outer archipelago in the municipalities of Kimitoön and Pargas. The park has around 1,000 islands and islets. The landscape above sea level is characterised by outer islands with low trees, lush inner islands, glaciated rock and numerous islands of sand and pebbles (Jurmo, Sandskär, Sandö) belonging to the third Sal- TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 36 pausselkä lateral moraine. Its underwater landscape is rather spectacular with clear lines of depressions and ruptures as well as the Gullkrona sunken valley. The park has the richest biodiversity in the entire country. Approximately one tenth of the land area is managed to preserve old pasturage and wooded meadows. The park and its neighbouring areas form the Archipelago Sea Biosphere Reserve that belongs to the UNESCO network and which has a permanent population of 1,200. There are only two such reserves in Finland (the other is Patvinsuo in North Karelia). The Bothnian Sea National Park (41,000 visitors, 20 person-years) spans the outer archipelagos of Eurajoki, Kustavi, Luvia, Merikarvia, Pori, Pyhäranta, Rauma and Uusikaupunki. A total of 98% of the park is under water and it has three lighthouses: Isokari, Kylmäpihlaja and Säppi. Information on the park is available at the Ark Nature Centre in Pori. Located off the coasts of Kemi and Tornio, the Bothnian Bay National Park (9,000 visitors, 2 person-years) comprises around forty islands and islets. Most of them are in groups separated from each other Nature centres provide a wide range of activities and points of interest, including many AV presentations that offer unique insight into our nation’s wildlife. Located in the Nuuksio National Park, near Espoo in southern Finland, Haltia – The Finnish Nature Centre opened to visitors in 2013. Birdwatching is fastbecoming one of the most popular forms of nature tourism in many countries. It is estimated that around 25 million Europeans make a hobby out of birdwatching. JARI KOSTET Maritime national parks 13.1.2016 12:02:32

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS by vast open seas. Visitors can observe the constantly changing sea environment created by land uplift, as well as traditional fishing bases and landscapes. Across the Swedish border is Haparanda National Park. 37 The Ruunaa Hiking Area (85,000 visitors, 56 person-years) in Lieksa is an important State hiking area rich in waters. The Lieksanjoki river traverses the hiking area and boasts six rapids with a total drop of almost 16 metres. The rapids are suitable for rafting, canoeing and riding a dinghy. The area has 12 log lean-tos and 20 cabins that are available for rent. Visitors with physical disabilities have also been taken into consideration. The centre of the Oulujärvi Hiking Area (38,000 visitors, 16 person-years), located in part-island municipality Vaala, is the island of Manamansalo. Information on this hiking area is available at the camping ground of Manamansalo that is particularly popular among caravanners. Other attractions The Kvarken Archipelago Nature Reserve (340,000 visitors, 250 person-years), Finland’s only natural UNESCO world heritage site, spreads over the municipalities of Korsholm, Malax, Vörå, Vaasa and Korsnäs. The area comprises 6,500 islands, and even the highest of them only rises approximately 20 metres above sea level. Particularly impressive are the washboard moraine fields shaped by the Ice Age. Land uplift is very strong here, with new islands rising, bays turning into lakes and boat channels becoming shallower, even within one generation. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 37 Finnish sea islands are a veritable paradise for researchers. They are young and undergo constant growth and change. Land uplift is still pulling new islands from the sea. An islet born on the open sea often remains almost without vegetation for some three centuries, until it has risen high enough to provide a habitat for a few grasses, rushes and other herbaceous plants rooted in rock crevices. As the island grows in height, seaweed washed in by waves is deposited in crevices and depressions. Increasing in density, the root layer binds composting matter underneath. This creates a miniature meadow with blooming plants including sea mayweed (Tripleurospermum maritimum ssp. maritimum), chives (Allium schoenoprasum) or biting stonecrop (Sedum acre). Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), yellow loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris) and meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) thrive in damp depressions. These depressions can also become swampy and plants such as crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre) and even cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus) can rise from the mossy ground. The first immigrant trees are prostrate junipers, followed by rowans and twisted and knotted pines. Spruces carpet vast depressed areas. Insects are the first representatives of the animal kingdom to arrive, although by no means voluntarily but blown in by winds. With more and more areas available for shelter, feeding and reproduction, insect diversity increases. Larger winged creatures also appear relatively early: gulls, waterfowl and wading birds efficiently fertilise the islets. The majority of island birdlife is only present in summer. The nesting populations of barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) have grown significantly in the 2000s and some believe that the populations are now excessive. In contrast, the populations of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) have declined as a result of environmental pressures. The number of migratory birds passing through the area and hurrying to the Arctic exceeds the number of birds nesting in the archipelago. In the best days in May, flocks of thousands of birds can fly through the Finnish archipelago. Hundreds of thousands of long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common scoters (Melanitta nigra) can be counted in the Gulf of Finland in one evening. The daily counts for barnacle geese and brent geese (Branta bernicla) can also reach five-digit numbers. SEPPO KERÄNEN JARI KOSTET Island nature The number of white-tailed sea eagles declined alarmingly in Finland during the 1970s. Today, almost 500 hundred sea eagle chicks a year are born. Nest areas are no longer confined to coastal areas. Among the first mammal invaders are voles, which can at times decimate a young island’s vegetation. An island is a harsh environment for many species: reproduction is difficult and habitats are destroyed by storms and ice. It takes persistence and luck to survive. The largest mammals, such as elks, enjoy spending time on large, forested inland and sea islands, sometimes even attracting bears in their wake. The larger an island grows, the greater its number of species and their genetic diversity. Often only around ten species of vascular plants can be found on small islands, while medium ones may have fifty and reasonably large ones over one hundred. Not enough time has passed for endemic species to evolve on Finland’s sea islands, as they have on other islands worldwide. The migration of our islands from the outer sea to the bosom of our inner archipelago, finally to merge with the mainland, has been too fast for the evolution of new species. A level of microevolution has, however, taken place: our sea islands have forty-odd species of vascular plants whose features differ clearly from those of their inland ancestors. The homes of some of these subspecies are apparent in their scientific names: the common bird’s foot trefoil native to Åland (Lotus corniculatus var. alandicus), the field mugwort of the Bay of Bothnia (Artemisia campestris ssp. bottnica) and the hair-grass of the Gulf of Bothnia (Deschampsia bottnica). 13.1.2016 12:02:33

38 FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS Underwater Finland Finland consists of an area covering 423,000 square kilometres of the Earth. Over one fourth of this area, around 28%, is water. When the Finnish Exclusive Economic Zone is taken into account, the total area of Finland’s sea areas is 84,900 km2. Freshwater areas account for 34,000 km2. In total, the underwater areas of Finland cover a considerably larger area than our thirteen smallest regions put together. Our knowledge of underwater areas has significantly increased in recent years. One of the ILKKA LASTUMÄKI main contributors has been the Finnish Inventory Programme for the Underwater Marine Environment (VELMU). Researchers have also studied the underwater world of our inland waters. On the coast of the Bay of Bothnia, the sea Depressions, hills, cobble deposits and sand fields deepens slowly and islands are low and far away The fragmented nature of our ancient bedrock is consists of moraine, boulders, rocks and gravel. particularly obvious in the Gulf of Finland and the There are vast fields of sand on the seabed that Finnish Archipelago Sea where depressions and sometimes form constantly changing islands. from each other. The outer archipelago mainly mounds alternate. The Salpausselkä ridges that continue underwater and the canyons of crushed zones add to the versatility of the seabed. Thou- Diverse but threatened marine environment sands of islands also rise from the sea. The ecosystem of the Baltic Sea includes seawa- In the Bothnian Sea, the bedrock is covered by ter, brackish water and freshwater species. Key sedimentary rocks that even out the seabed, par- species, such as bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), ticularly in open sea areas. The mean depth of the specific aquatic plants and blue mussels (Mytilus Bothnian Sea is slightly over 60 metres. The deepest point is 293 metres below sea level and located in Swedish waters. In Kvarken, the water depth is mainly below 25 metres. Boulder-rich moraine formations cover the seabed and also pierce the water. In the inner Maintaining a rich and diverse aquaculture is important both above and below the surface of the water. A healthy underwater ecosystem not only improves the recreational value of the waterways but also creates the necessary preconditions for enterprise development and growth in the archipelago region. A barnacle makes its home on a bicycle that has been submerged for at least a couple of years in the beach water of Vuosaari island. This crustacean arrived in the Baltic Sea at the beginning of the 19th century. Nowadays, its northernmost distribution is the Kvarken area of the archipelago. archipelago, there is more land than water and JARI KOSTET the water exchange to the open sea is weak. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 38 13.1.2016 12:02:37

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 39 trossulus x edulis) form communities that all other species are dependent on. A significant decline in the population of just one of these key species can affect the entire ecosystem. Detailed research has been performed in the Ingå archipelago in the western part of the Gulf of Finland. According to the research results, 37% of the seabed was bedrock, 22% was moraine and 17% was gyttja clay. Blue mussels and bay barnacles covered almost all hard surfaces down to 20 metres in depth. In the shallowest areas, the seaweeds Furcellaria lumbricalis and Cladophora rupspecimens of bladderwrack were spotted. Many phenomena threaten the biodiversity of underwater ecosystems, including eutrophication, HARRI NURMINEN ILKKA LASTUMÄKI estris could be found, but only one or two poor harmful substances and climate change. Overfishing and invasive species can change the structure level of the lake in connection with the Höytiäinen of the food web. Shoreline building, the construc- flood disaster in 1859. The spike in caesium levels tion of harbours and wind farms, the extraction of caused by the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 is also gravel, and dredging change the environment irre- securely documented in the sediments. versibly. Ship traffic, boating and the recreational use of sea areas can also can also cause stress to Clear and turbid waters the marine environment. The visibility depth of Finnish lakes and coastal waters has been measured for decades. It mainly A long history of lake-bottom research depends on the amount of humus, clay and algae Lake Pyhäjärvi in Tampere was the first Finnish found in the water. At best, visibility depth can lake to be depth-mapped in 1856. Poet and geog- be over ten metres, but 2.5 metres is enough for a rapher Aaro Hellaakoski published a fairly accu- water area to be classified as excellent. In turbid rate depth map of Lake Saimaa in 1920. For a long waters clouded by humus, visibility depth can be time, progress was slow and sounding points were less than half a metre. difficult to pinpoint accurately on a map. Finland has six lakes whose greatest depth was significantly decreased during the last century. In the coastal waters of Finland, visibility depth (92 m), Suvasvesi (90 m), Saimaa (86 m), Toisvesi typically decreased from 8–9 metres to 4–5 metres. and Pääjärvi in Lammi (85 m). According to divers, In the Gulf of Finland, this negative development there is a small depression in Ristiselkä, Päijänne seems to have stalled, but it is continuing in the where the greatest depth is 104 metres. Wouldn’t Bothnian Sea and the Bay of Bothnia. One of the it be great if Finland had one lake that was over main reasons for this is probably the load from river 100 metres deep! waters that is partially due to human activities. Sludge continuously accumulates on the bot- Our inland freshwaters are often naturally col- tom of the basins. It consists of sediments from oured yellowy brown by humus, but a high iron the catchment area of the lake and residues of content can also turn water brown. Visibility the lake’s organisms. The sludge preserves some depth varies according to the season; it is usually of these residues and they can remain unchanged at its worst when algae production is at its peak for thousands of years. This means that the bot- level and when runoff water is very turbid. thin layer representing the events of one year. JARI KOSTET In the majority of the Baltic Sea, visibility depth exceeds 80 metres. They are Päijänne (95 m), Inari tom sediments of lakes record our history, each Two thirds of Finland’s 50 largest lakes have a visibility depth of 1.5–3 metres. Of these large The retting of flax and other fibre plants was lakes, only Inari, Suontee, Pyhäjärvi in Kitee, Puru- the first major source of eutrophication in Finland, vesi and Juojärvi have a visibility depth of over 5 but in large lakes it did not have a significant effect metres. Some smaller lakes are, however, clearer on water quality. The sediments of Lake Saimaa than this. These lakes include Valkiajärvi in Kitee, have recorded events such as the lowering of the Sonnanen in Heinola and Simijärvi in Raseborg. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 39 The freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) can grow up to 15 cm long. It is an especially endangered species. It became the first protected invertebrate in Finland in 1955. The freshwater pearl mussel can live to be 200 years old. 13.1.2016 12:02:39

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS KUSTAVIN KIRJALLISUUSYHDISTYS 40 The spun works of artisan Toive Lehtinen can be seen throughout the island landscape of Kustavi. The programme of the Volter Kilpi Literature Week held on the island of Kustavi includes handicrafts, theatre productions, concerts, and excursions to Volter Kilpi’s sceneries on land and at sea. The main focus of the event remains, however, literature in and about nature. Islands and writers Ahosaari, the island where Eino Leino wrote many Otto Manninen, the poet of Puulavesi of his poems, is one of the four hundred islands of Rämiäinen is an island of over 200 hectares Kukkia. The largest island, Evinsalo, is half a kilo- located in Lake Puulavesi, on the southwestern metre away and the mainland about one kilome- side of Simpiänselkä, the biggest open area of the tre away. lake. The island is characterised by a deep bay, a Islands and islanders appear in the works of pond and several rocky hills. Otto Manninen and many Finnish authors and many authors have also Anni Swan built a summer house by Kotavuori, lived or spent holidays on the islands. Although one of these hills, in the early 1910s. Puulavesi Väinö Linna was not one of these authors, he too was a familiar lake to Manninen since he was was attracted by islands since he wrote: “I placed originally from Hokankylä in Kangasniemi. islands in Lake Kortejärvi although there aren’t any in the lake in real life, but I thought that they made the landscape more beautiful, so it was my attempt to slightly improve the scenery.” Although the most important landscape in Under the North Star is the Finnish mire, a lake is also mentioned more than ten times. Linna used Lake Kortejärvi in Urjala as a source of inspiration. Eino Leino arrived in Kukkia as a summer guest in July 1914. His hosts Sulo and Hella Wuolijoki had a villa on the island of Ahosaari. Leino translated Dante and wrote Elämän koreus, one TUOMAS MANNINEN of his poetry anthologies. It included poems such as Paista päivä! (‘Shine, Sun!’) and Pilvinen päivä (‘Cloudy day’). There were both clouds and sunshine in Eino Leino’s life, and one of the reasons he came to Ahosaari was to rest and get away from the hectic social life he led in Helsinki. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 40 Authors Otto Manninen and Anni Swan made their summer home on the island of Rämiäinen on Lake Puulavesi. 13.1.2016 12:02:42

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 41 The young Anni Swan first came to the island in July 1905: “…to Rämiäinen. What an ugly name! But all the lusher and more beautiful was the island we rowed our boat to.” Manninen’s first poetry anthology was also published in the summer of 1905. He was thorough in polishing his poems, but left a lot to the reader to interpret. Manninen was most prolific as a translator, and his translations included works by Homer, Goethe and Molière. The birth of Nocturne, Eino Leino’s famous poem describing the atmosphere of a summer’s night, is also linked to the landscapes of Puulavesi, but not to the island of Rämiäinen. Leino enjoyed the hospitality of the Manninen family at their home during several summers and could see Puulavesi from the window of his upstairs room. Nocturne was published in the summer of 1903. The sea leaves its mark Our sea islands and island life have been depicted in numerous literary works. Many of the early writers lived in the archipelago because of their PER OLOV JANSSON / MOOMIN CHARACTERS work. One of these writers was Elis Selin who worked as a priest in Hitis. In his works, the sea is a symbol of freedom, taking action, and courage, but he also describes the trials of everyday life. Of individual decades, the 1970s is an interesting decade in island literature. Perhaps it is not a coincidence that there was a major structural change taking place in the Finnish archipelago in TUOMAS MANNINEN the 1970s. Benedict Zilliacus published Utöar in 1974. The book presents the life of people living ily had a villa in the Stockholm archipelago and on the islands of the Archipelago Sea. The illus- her father’s family spent holidays on an island in trations were made by Henrik Tikkanen. the Gulf of Finland. This is where Jansson drew her Anni Blomqvist was a novelist from Åland very first Moomin figure on the door of the out- whose book Tie Myrskyluodolle was published the house. The reason for drawing the figure was that same year. The original Swedish version, Vägen she had had a fight with her brother Lasse and till Stormskäret, had been published in 1968. It wanted to draw the “ugliest creature imaginable”. was part of Blomqvist’s Stormskärs-Maja series Later on in her life, Jansson spent a lot of time that comprised five books and described the life on the island of Klovharun in Pellinki, off the coast of islander girl Maja in the 19th century. of Porvoo. Ulla-Leena Lundberg, another author from The majority of Finnish authors who have Åland, published Kökar, a book about her island depicted life on our sea islands have been Swed- of birth, in 1976. Lundberg has set her novels in ish-speaking Finns. The most famous exception different corners of the world, but often returned is probably Volter Kilpi whose novel Alastalon to the islands familiar to her. This was also the salissa was published in 1933. The novel contains case in 2012 when she won the Finlandia prize over 900 pages written using a stream of con- for her novel Is. sciousness technique and it gives an account of Internationally, Finland’s most famous island the events of a six-hour period. The novel is part writer is Tove Jansson. Having spent almost all the of a trilogy located in Kustavi. The other parts of summers of her childhood and youth on islands, the trilogy are Pitäjän pienempiä, a collection of she was familiar with island life. Her mother’s fam- short stories, and novel Kirkolle. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 41 Tove Jansson spent more than thirty summers on the island of Klovharun in Pellinki, off the coast of Porvoo. 13.1.2016 12:02:45

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS JARI KOSTET 42 The Åland summer is a hugely popular cultural event, with the number of attendees exceeding the permanent population of the region. Finnish island records Märket islet is a small uninhabited skerry in the north of the Sea of Åland famed for its lighthouse. The skerry measures approximately 350 metres by 150 metres and bisected by the border between Finland and Sweden. Largest sea island: Mainland Åland (685 km2). Easternmost island: An unnamed island in Lake Virmajärvi (Ilomantsi), 31° 35’ 20’’. Also the easternmost point of Finland. Largest lake island: Soisalo (1,638 km2). The second-largest lake island in the world, only beaten by 2 Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron (2,766 km ). Southernmost island: Bogskär (Kökar), 59° 30’ 10’’. Also the southernmost point of Finland. Largest river island: Kiettare in Kokemäenjoki river (18 km2). Northernmost island: An unnamed island in Tenojoki river, west of Nuorgam, 70° 04’ 06’’. Only 2.5 km south of the northernmost point of Finland. Westernmost island: Märket (Hammarland), 19° 08’ 02’’. Also the westernmost point of Finland. Island at the highest altitude: One small island can be found at an altitude higher than one thousand metres. It is located on the fells of northwest Finland in a pond in the upper reaches of the river Urtasjoki 1,025 metres above sea level. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 42 Largest island in a lake on an island: There is a 76-hectare island called Halolansaari in Lake Saamaisjärvi on the island of Soisalo. The island has no lakes; no Finnish islands in lakes on islands are known to have lakes. Largest river on an island: The Vaahtovanjoki river on Soisalo island covers 118 km2 with 45 lakes that contain around 50 islands. The entire island of Soisalo has over 700 lakes with some 200 islands on them. Highest-rising island: The highest peak of Mahlatti, the largest island in Lake Inari, rises 136 metres above the lake’s surface. Paalasmaa, the largest island in EEO J. LAAMANEN / VASTAVALO PEKKA VÄISÄNEN / THE FINNISH LIGHTHOUSE SOCIETY Largest lake on an island: Kulkemus on Partalansaari, 583 ha. Kulkemus has almost twenty islands, the largest of which is Ukonsaari (12 ha). 13.1.2016 12:02:52

FINLAND – LAND OF ISLANDS AND WATERS 43 Most populated island: Mainland Åland with 21,600 inhabitants. The next two are urban islands in Helsinki: Lauttasaari with 19,600 and Laajasalo with 16,500. Soisalo has a population of approx. 10,400 – a little more than Kotkansaari, which forms the centre of the town of Kotka. Most populated island without a permanent road connection: After Mainland Åland, the top of the league is fairly even: Hailuoto 986, Storlandet (Nagu) 866 and Suomenlinna 753. Lake Pielinen, loses by five metres, and Judinsalo in Lake Päijänne by nine metres. Orrdalsklint, the highest point of mainland Åland, is 129 metres above sea level, making Åland the third highest island in Finland. The tallest island in the Baltic Sea is Sweden’s 236-metre tall Mjältön in the Höga Kusten area. Lounatkorkea of Hogland rises to 176 metres. All of Finland’s “mountain lakes” can be found in the Käsivarsi Wilderness Area in Lapland. Lake Riimmajärvi sits at 677 metres above sea level. The legendary “Urtashotelli” wilderness hut is situated on the lake’s edge. Most island-rich lake: If Great Saimaa is regarded as one lake, it boasts a grand total of 17,216 islands. Lake Inari has 3,318, Päijänne 1,886. Saimaa is the most island-rich lake in the world; Lake of the Woods on the US/Canadian border has 14,742 islands. Vänern, the largest lake in Sweden, has 12,285. Publisher: Text: Layout: Translation: Printed by: The Island Committee, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Esko Kuusisto Jyrki Heimonen/Aarnipaja Ky Lingsoft Language Services Oy Forssa Print, Forssa 2016 EEO J. LAAMANEN / VASTAVALO The straits around Savonlinna are the fastest flowing waters in Greater Saimaa. This was well-known by those who built the Olavinlinna castle in the 15th century. The site was easy to defend even in winter, as the encircling waters never completely froze. ANTERO JÄRVINEN Lake Inari is the third-largest water body in Finland (Aanaarjävri in the Inari Sámi language). It has a surface area of 1,084 km2 and is home to 3,318 islands. The lake contains plenty of salmonoid fish, including salmon, trout, Arctic char, lake trout, whitefish, vendace, and European grayling. Nowadays, the majority of the fish are released from fish stocks. BACK COVER PHOTOS: ANTERO AALTONEN, JARI KOSTET AND MARKKU SAIHA / LEUKU JARI KOSTET HARRI NURMINEN Largest uninhabited island: Mahlatti in Lake Inari, 21 km2. TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 43 13.1.2016 12:02:55 • • The Island Committee,  Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry,  P.O. Box 30,  FI-00023 Government,  FINLAND TEM_Vesistoesite 2016_korjattu_MMM_eng.indd 44 13.1.2016 12:03:03